mobile station

          A Comparative Overview of the Livestock-Environment Interactions in Asia and Sub-saharan Africa

          Understanding the interactions between livestock and the environment in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa is essential to sustainable livestock sector development. In this comparative overview, we review the available evidence on the extent of grassland degradation, land, and water pollution by nutrients and microorganisms, water stress, biodiversity loss, and greenhouse gas emissions and their relation to livestock production in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. We also draw on Asia’s past livestock development trajectories and their impacts to provide guidance for future sustainable livestock development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Forward-looking policies and programs that anticipate long-term changes in the livestock sector and that assess trade-offs between policies and investments in multiple environmental domains in Sub-Saharan Africa are required to support sustainable development and guide policy decisions in the years ahead, from an environmental, social and public health perspective.

          Introduction

          In the past two decades, and especially since the turn of the millennium, the African continent has been one of the fastest-growing regions of the world. Average annual gross domestic product (GDP) growth for the entire continent was over 4%, though with ups and downs and differences between countries (1). Economic growth prospects, both for the medium and long-term, are good (24). This anticipated development of the African continent will go hand in hand with transformative changes in its agriculture. The agricultural sector will transform not only to meet a spectacular increase in the demand for food, but also to satisfy the changing food preferences of an increasingly affluent and urbanized population. The sheer numbers are impressive: Africa’s population is expected to reach 2.5 billion by 2050 vs. 1.2 billion today, with per capita consumption of food, as measured in kilocalories, more than doubling (5).

          Within agriculture, the livestock sector is predicted to change dramatically. As GDP and consumer purchasing power grow, so will the demand for high-value products, including animal source foods such as meat, milk and eggs. In response, producers will invest in and expand livestock production and respective value chains, a phenomenon dubbed the “Livestock Revolution” (6). As in industrialized economies, the livestock sector, which currently accounts for about 1/3 of the value added of agriculture, is expected to become the largest contributor to agriculture.

          The anticipated expansion of Africa’s livestock sector and associated value chains may satisfy consumer demand but, if uncontrolled, could also have negative effects on public health, the environment and livelihoods, as experience elsewhere, for instance in Asia, has shown. In the last 30 years, meat consumption in South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia combined increased from about 36 to over 125 million tons and milk consumption from 60 to almost 220 million tons, that is by over 250% for both commodities. Parallel increases have occurred on the production side. For example, between 1985 and 2013 the poultry population passed from 3.5 to 12.4 billion and the off-take rate from 141 to 207% (7). This spectacular change in the livestock sector has been accompanied by a number of negative effects on society. Examples include smallholder farmers being squeezed out from commercial poultry and pig production (8); human health being threatened by outbreaks of zoonotic diseases, such as avian influenzas and animal food borne-diseases (9,?10); and by livestock-associated pollution of soil and water (11,?12).

          This paper aims to provide some guidance for sustainable livestock sector development in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) by presenting a comparative overview of the relationship between livestock and the environment in SSA and Asia. There are a number of models used to assess the impact of livestock on a variety of environmental dimensions. For example, the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model (GLEAM) allows to investigate greenhouse gas emissions from livestock (13); Mekonnen and Hoekstra (14) use a linear equation to estimate the water footprint of livestock for all countries, which is calculated as the direct water footprint of drinking and service water and the indirect water footprint associated with feed production; Alkemade et al. (15) quantify the impact of livestock production on biodiversity by estimating changes in Mean Species Abundance of the original native species associated with the introduction of domesticated animals. There is no model, however, that comprehensively and jointly assesses the multitude of impacts of livestock on the environment. In this article, therefore, we provide a comparative overview of the extent of grassland transformation and degradation, land and water pollution by nutrients, and microorganisms, water withdrawal and stress, biodiversity loss, and greenhouse gas emissions, their relation to livestock production on the two continents, and the broad consequences of these environmental impacts (Figure 1).

          Even though available literature and datasets only allow a broad exploration of the above livestock-environment interactions on the two continents, highlighting contrasts, and similarities generates useful information to guide the decision-making process.

          Grassland Transformation and Degradation

          Grasslands, including rangelands and sown pastures, are among the largest ecosystems of the world and provide valuable ecosystems services. Grasslands sequester carbon, absorb methane, reduce emissions of nitrous oxide, and protect the soil from erosion. They thereby ameliorate local and regional climate and contribute to preserving the composition of the atmosphere. Overall, the value of ecosystem services provided by grasslands may be as large as, or larger than the sum of marketed products such as meat, milk, fibers, and hides from ruminant animals. Naturally, grasslands are mostly limited by water, but water availability permitting, they can be transformed into croplands. In sufficiently moist environments, most of the grasslands have in fact been converted into cropland while most of the grasslands in arid and semiarid environments remain as such and are largely, if not solely utilized to graze livestock.

          Extensive areas of grassland are present both in Asia and SSA, comprising about 600 and 700 million hectares, respectively. Grasslands represent 80% of agricultural land in East Asia while they are far less prominent in South and Southeast Asia, where they only represent 25 and 13% of agricultural land, respectively (Tables 1,?2). In SSA, 77% of agricultural land is classified as grassland, ranging from 65% in Western Africa to 90% in Southern Africa.

          In the last two decades, grassland areas have shrunk in Asia, while no major trends are recorded in the African continent. Specifically, between 1990 and 2010, grassland areas have decreased by 17 and 5% in South Asia and Southeast Asia, respectively, and remained stable (±1%) in East Asia (Table 1). They have decreased by 3% Eastern Africa, remained stable in Central and Southern Africa, and increased by 7% in Western Africa (Table 2). The latter increase has been linked to increasing rainfall in the Sahel over the last years (16,?17), while decreases of grassland areas in South Asia, Southeast Asia and Eastern Africa are due to conversion for other uses.

          While reduction in grassland areas is more prominent in the Asian than the African continent, grasslands in Africa are experiencing higher degradation rates, with reduced soil fertility, plant diversity and productivity. Kwon et al. (18) estimated the global extent of degraded grasslands that were used for livestock grazing based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data from 2001 to 2010 corrected for annual rainfall. Their findings are that in East Asia around 77 million ha of grazing land are degraded while their figure for SSA is 340 million ha. Relating these estimates of the extent of degraded grazing areas to the amount of agricultural land classified as grassland by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) yields degradation rates of 15 and 48% for East Asian and SSA grasslands, respectively. The latter value is in broad agreement with the estimate of Le et al. (19) of 40% of SSA’s grassland being degraded. Within SSA, Eastern Africa experienced the most severe grazing biomass degradation with 65% of livestock grazing on degraded grasslands (20). In Eastern Africa, probably as an adaptation to rangeland degradation, pastoralists have changed herd structure from cattle to camels, sheep, and goats Ogutu et al. (21).

          The causes of (grass) land degradation are numerous and complex. However, overgrazing by livestock prominently features among the cited causes. It reduces plant cover, and hence protection of the soil surface; it contributes to the degradation of riparian woods and forests, at the interface between land and water sources, with negative effects on water flows; it reduces the population sizes of wild herbivores and predators, which in turn affects biodiversity. The overall consequences are a reduction of provisioning and eco-systems services.

          With respect to provisioning services, Kwon et al. (18) estimated that in SSA grassland degradation resulted in a loss of meat and milk production in 2007 of United States Dollars (USD) 812 million (a loss of USD 98/ton of grazing biomass dry matter reduction). In Kenya, the annual costs of rangeland degradation amounted to USD 80 million, with USD 24 million of losses experienced in warm arid and USD 16 million losses experienced in warm semi-arid agro-ecologies (22). For East Asia, production losses attributable to grassland degradation have been estimated as USD 145 million (a loss of USD 317/ton of grazing biomass dry matter reduction) (18).

          For SSA, Nkonya et al. (20) estimate the total cost of land degradation on grazing biomass at about USD 1.11 billion, of which slightly more than half are attributed to reduced provisioning services while the remainder is attributed to reduced eco-systems services. For Niger, where grasslands represent 75% of non-desert land, the cost of the reduction of ecosystem services was estimated to be around USD 340 million in 2007, which represented around 5% of national GDP (23).

          Grassland degradation can also affect people, who do not live from or in the proximity of the latter. For example, the increased frequency of sandstorms in China is clear sign of progressive desertification as direct consequence of degradation of the grasslands of northern China. Whereas, over the past century China was hit by almost 70 sandstorms, with an average frequency of one sandstorm every 3 years in the 1940s, the frequency had increased to one every 2 years by the 1960s. By the 1990s, the sandstorms in north China took place several times a year and this increased further to 12 in 2000 and 18 in 2001 (24). The frequency of sandstorms has since increased even further and, by carrying contaminants from the polluted soils of China’s industrial north, severely affects air quality of major cities.

          In SSA, grassland degradation warrants major attention given the large share of grasslands in SSA’s agricultural area and the high rates of degradation (40% or more). Most of SSA’s grasslands are managed by pastoralists, who are very knowledgeable about maintaining an ecological balance between pastures and livestock. However, pastoralism is particularly sensitive to population growth because the technical possibilities of changing the productivity of rangeland (changing the output-to-land ratio) are limited, especially when compared to yield increases obtainable by technical advances in crop production (25). Despite this limitation, Nkonya and Anderson (26) find that pastoral communities and other livestock keepers apply relatively sustainable land management practices if provided with good market access and secure land rights and if institutions are strengthened to regulate land use.

          Given SSA’s high population growth and associated growth in demand for animal source food, decision makers in the African continent should carefully assess current and future role of grasslands for society, including costs and benefits of transforming them into croplands. Grasslands’ provision of marketed goods and services, which have a price tag, does not preclude the provision of other services, which may not be marketable. In fact, appropriate grassland management can enhance both aboveground biomass production (e.g., available to livestock) and belowground carbon sequestration (27). For SSA, overlooking grasslands’ ecosystem services is likely to cause serious errors in resource allocation.

          Nutrient Overloading of Land and Water

          Livestock dung is an important source of plant nutrients but can cause substantial pollution of ecosystems if managed improperly (28). Negative environmental consequences of excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) comprise reduced soil fertility, water eutrophication, contamination of groundwater with nitrates and bio-diversity loss. In 2007, the total amount of manure produced by livestock worldwide was estimated at 22.5 billion tons (29). Globally, the nutrient budget of agriculture as a whole is dominated by the rapidly growing livestock sector with its low nutrient recovery. Total nitrogen and phosphorus released into the environment through manure from livestock now exceed global nitrogen and phosphorus applied in fertilizer (30).

          Historical changes and the possible future of nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in crop-livestock systems have been analyzed by 11. In many parts of Asia, nitrogen surplus currently exceeds 4,000 kg/km2/year while in SSA surpluses, where they exist, are mostly below 1,000 kg/km2/year (East African highlands have higher nitrogen surpluses). Overall, however, almost 80% of African countries are confronted with nitrogen scarcity or nitrogen stress problems (31) rather than nitrogen surpluses.

          Table 3?presents estimates of the total amounts of nitrogen and phosphate (P2O5) excreted by livestock in the various sub-regions of Asia and SSA in 2010 and the resulting nutrient loads per ha of agricultural land. Per ha of agricultural land, nitrogen and phosphate from livestock are highest in South Asia, followed by Southeast Asia and East Asia, while in sub-regions of SSA nitrogen and phosphate loads are only between half and one third of those in Asia.

          Gerber et al. (32) state, that “Phosphate (P2O5) overload is a concern in almost a fifth of cropland in South, East and Southeast Asia, mainly in eastern China, the Ganges basin and around urban centers such as Bangkok, Ho Chi Minh City, and Manila.” They estimate that livestock manure accounts for 39.4% of the agricultural phosphate supply (the remaining share being supplied by chemical fertilizers). Livestock manure is the main source of phosphate around urban centers and in areas specialized in livestock specialized production (southern and north-eastern China), while chemical fertilizers are dominant in crop (rice) intensive areas. In China, for example, direct manure discharge accounts for over two-thirds of nutrients in the northern rivers and for 20 to 95% of nutrients in the central and southern rivers (12). For SSA, MacDonald et al. (33) estimate that the median phosphorus balance is around 1 kg/ha/year (vs. ~10 kg/ha/year in Asia) and that most of the agricultural land falls either into the lowest deficit or lowest surplus quartile.

          Nutrient overloads are a concern for the environment and public health. In the South China Sea, algal blooms caused by high phosphorus loads, including one in 1998 that killed more than 80% of the fish in 100 km2?along the coast of Hong Kong and southern China (34), are a recurring phenomenon. Due to high and increasing phosphorus loads of waters flowing into the South China sea, toxic algal blooms off the coast of China have expanded in geographic extent (from km2?to tens of km2), duration (days to months), and in harmful impacts (35).

          Leaching of nitrate (NO3) from lagoons used for the storage of pig manure or from fields receiving an excess of livestock manure also affects ground / drinking water. In the Philippines and Thailand, for example, drinking water from 30% of all groundwater wells sampled showed nitrate levels above the World Health Organization safety limit of 50 mg/L of nitrate (36).

          Given the livestock sector’s predicted persistent growth, global nitrogen and phosphorus surpluses will continue to increase (+23% nitrogen and +54% phosphorus) despite improved nitrogen and phosphorus recovery in crop and livestock production (+35% nitrogen and +6% phosphorus recovery in crops and +35% nitrogen and phosphorus recovery in livestock). For Africa, Bouwman et al. (11) estimate that between 2000 and 2050 nitrogen and phosphorus surpluses per km2?will rise by 30 and 194%, respectively.

          Pelletier and Tyedmers (37) estimate that in 2,000 global livestock production occupied 217% of the “safe space” for sustainable mobilization of reactive nitrogen and, based on FAO’s global projections of demand for edible livestock products, predict that by 2050 the livestock sector may occupy 294% of the boundary for sustainable mobilization of reactive nitrogen. Manure accounts for approximately 40% of agricultural phosphorus use and the combination of fertilizer and manure is the primary driver of phosphorus surpluses in around 30% of the global cropland area (33). According to Rockstr?m et al. (38) global phosphorus flows into the oceans have reached around 90% of the amount considered to be safe.

          Asia’s fulminant livestock development trajectory over the last decades has resulted in major nutrient overloads in soil and water. While driven by the necessity to provide an additional amount of food to a growing and increasingly affluent population, agriculture, and livestock intensification contributed to nutrient overloads, which are now a major concern from an environmental and public health perspective in the Asian continent. Although by 2,050 nutrient surpluses in Africa will still only be a fraction of those predicted for Asia, despite higher growth, African decision-makers should consider promoting livestock production models, which, while satisfying the growing demand for animal source foods, are ecologically sound and largely maintain (or even reinforce) the traditional links between livestock and the local resource base.

          Microbiological Pollution

          Pathogenic microorganisms, which can cause various forms of gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals, can be considered as elements of soil and water pollution. Animal manure, in addition to nutrients, contains large numbers of microorganisms, which reside in the gastro-intestinal tract and are mostly part of the “normal” gut microbiome. Dairy cows for instance excrete 6 500 billion, feeder pigs 23 billion and layer chicken 1.8 billion coliform bacteria per day (39). Some of the excreted organisms may be pathogenic to other livestock species and humans and may be transported to water through surface runoff and erosion or by direct animal access to surface water. Streams and lakes used for drinking water supply and recreational purposes provide the greatest opportunity for transporting these pathogens to humans. Pathogens usually do not move through soil profiles and reach groundwater because of the filtering capabilities of soil. Exceptions to this may occur adjacent to poorly maintained well-casings (28). Untreated wastewater from slaughterhouses also contains large amounts of bacteria and microbial pollution around slaughter facilities is common [e.g., (4042)].

          In many parts of Asia, particularly South Asia, microbiological water quality has been found to be below World Health Organization (WHO) and national standards. In India for instance, nation-wide water quality monitoring indicated that 41% of surface water samples had fecal coliform counts exceeding the threshold of 500/100 mL and 14% of samples had fecal coliform counts of more than 5 000/100 mL (43,?44) examined the quality of well water in Karnataka, India, and found that 74 of 80 (92.5%) of the samples were contaminated with coliforms and 22 (27.5%) of the samples contained fecal indicator organisms. In Indonesia, Budisatria et al. (45) found high levels of well water contamination with fecal coliform bacteria in the vicinity of small ruminant housing. In Bangladesh, Ercumen et al. (46) compared the number of?E. coli?in water, soil and food in compounds with vs. without animals.?E. coli?was higher by 0.54 log10?in soil, 0.40 log10?in stored water and 0.61 log10?in food (p?< 0.05) in compounds with animals. Over 50% of soil and 22% of stored water contained ruminant markers while the avian marker was detected in 33% of soil and 9% of water samples. In India, Schriewer et al. (47) detected animal fecal markers in 74% of ponds, 96% of households and 10% of groundwater drinking sources, indicating ubiquitous risks of exposure to zoonotic pathogens excreted with animal feces.

          Microbiological assessments of water quality in various countries in SSA have also revealed significant levels of contamination. In Nigeria for instance, water from various sampling points on the Asa river all had TTC counts (Total Thermotolerant Coliform count, a surrogate for?E. coli) >2 500/100 mL (48). Traoré et al. (49) found?Salmonella?in 15 and 20% of water samples from the reservoirs of Tanghin and Yamtenga, both of which serve Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso (Salmonella?were commonly isolated from the fish (24%) caught from the reservoir of Tanghin and from the lettuce (50%) irrigated with water from Tanghin). In Ethiopia, Yasin et al. (50) report that 80% of water samples collected from unprotected water sources were positive for fecal coliforms with counts ranging between 0.7 and 267 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL. Parker et al. (51) assessed microbiological water quality in 346 different water sources across the District of Amuria in Uganda. More than 90% of open wells and open water sources (n?= 107) had TTC counts above the Ugandan national standard of 50/100 mL with median TTC counts above 1,000/100 mL. Substandard microbiological water quality has also been reported from Rwanda Sekomo Birame et al. (52), Kenya Kirianki et al. (53), and Zimbabwe Zvidzai et al.(54).

          UNEP (55) has attempted to generate global statistics on water quality. Water samples from rivers in Africa have been found to have a median concentration of fecal coliform bacteria of 1,500 CFU/100 mL, i.e., water should be regarded as “severely polluted and unsuitable for any use,” while the median for Asia was 135 CFU/100 mL, i.e., the water is considered “suitable for agriculture as well as for bathing.” Consistently, regional annual mortality rates attributed to diarrhea from unsafe water, poor sanitation and hygiene in 2012 were highest for Africa, 43 deaths/100 000 population, followed by South Asia, with around 20 deaths/100,000 population, while in most East and Southeast Asian countries <5 deaths/100,000 population were attributed to water, poor sanitation and hygiene (56). Although these mortality rates primarily reflect the provision of access to safe drinking water, in regions where few people have access to safely managed drinking water services, e.g., 23% in SSA, they are also a reflection of the microbiological quality of surface and well water.

          Identifying the source of pathogens in water (e.g., human waste vs. animal waste, livestock vs. wildlife excreta and waterfowl droppings) is challenging (57). However, given domestic animals such as poultry, cattle, sheep and pigs generate 85% of the worlds animal fecal waste and about 6 times the amount of waste produced by humans (29), and given the high microbiological loads of animal manure, particularly in young animals, of which some microorganisms represent human health hazards, livestock are highly likely to make a significant contribution to environmental pollution with potentially harmful microorganisms.

          In particular, animal to human transmission via drinking water has been documented for several pathogens (e.g.,?Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Salmonella, and?Campylobacter) and evidence exists of human health effects associated with exposure to recreational waters contaminated with animal and bird feces [e.g., (5860)]. Prevailing standards of livestock manure management may thus not be appropriate for maintaining water safety.

          Current indicator organisms, despite debates about their ability to represent the potential presence of pathogenic bacteria, consistently suggest that microbiological water pollution is significantly higher in SSA than in Asia and the foreseen expansion of livestock in the continent is likely to exacerbate this situation. African policy makers should consider ways to reduce prevailing levels of microbiological pollution from livestock and ensure that growth and transformation of the sector does not adversely affect future water quality, as sound management of freshwater ecosystems and access to safe water are essential for environmental sustainability and human health.

          Water Withdrawal and Stress

          Livestock are a major user of water. Livestock production draws on water resources as drinking water, water to produce feed and water for cleaning and processing. The amount of drinking water used varies from 5 to 50 liters per Tropical Livestock Unit1?per day and depends on the species, dry matter intake, composition of the feed, water content of the feed, live weight of the animal, level of milk and meat production, physiological status of the animal and the climate in which the livestock is managed. However, the water required to produce daily feed for livestock is about 100 times the actual daily requirements for drinking water. Livestock typically require daily feed intake of dry matter amounting to about 3% of their weight and about 500 L (0.5 m3) of water is required to produce 1 kg dry matter (61). Thus, the impacts of livestock production on local/regional water balances largely depend on the predominant feeding systems, i.e., natural vegetation and/or crop residues vs. feed crops, and on feed production practices, i.e., rainfed vs. irrigated.

          Water can be divided into blue (i.e., surface and groundwater), green (i.e., soil water), and gray (i.e., “consumed”) water. One of the main differences among various methods for assessing water use is whether and how they include green and gray water and the type of water used greatly determines the environmental impact of any activity. In addition to differences in water accounting methods, it is usually very difficult to disentangle water used for livestock production from water dedicated to other agriculture uses.?Table 4, therefore, presents total agricultural water withdrawal by Asian and SSA sub-region without attempting to disaggregate between the livestock and other subsectors.

          In the Asian sub-regions, annual?per capita?agricultural water withdrawal ranges from around 300 to 550 m3, which is considerably higher than?per capita?agricultural water withdrawals in SSA. In Southern Africa,?per capita?withdrawal of 288 m3/year is similar to that of East Asia while withdrawals in Western, Eastern and Central Africa are much lower. In Asia, agriculture is responsible for two thirds to nine tenth of total water withdrawals and in East Asia water withdrawal is putting substantial pressure on water resources (>20% withdrawal of renewable water supply) while in South Asia the level of withdrawals has surpassed the threshold regarded as “critical” (>40% withdrawal of renewable water supply). In India, most irrigation water is used to grow food crops (~10% for cotton), whereas in China around 20% of groundwater is used for feed production (maize) (In the United States of America feed production, mainly fodder and maize, accounts for close to 50% of groundwater depletion). In SSA sub-regions, agriculture also accounts for the majority of water withdrawals (except in Central Africa), but water withdrawals are well within the limits regarded as “safe” (62).

          Although currently SSA’s water withdrawals are well within sustainable limits, increasing demand for livestock products and projected lower levels of rainfall due to climate change are predicted to lead to water scarcity in regions where it currently does not exist. The way the livestock sector will evolve, including in particular feeding practices, is going to have a major impact on water availability. Diminishing water supplies can translate into slower growth and reduced economic prospects. Under a business as usual scenario the World Bank (63) estimates that SSA, South and East Asia could see their growth rates decline by as much as 6% of GDP by 2050 as a result of water-related losses in agriculture, health, income, and property.

          Sixty-two estimate that global freshwater use has reached 65% of the sustainability limit of 4,000 km3?per year with regions of high water overconsumption. Animal production is an important source of water consumption globally, accounting for almost one third of the blue and green water footprint (idem). As the contribution of agriculture to water scarcity is largely related to blue water use, blue water use has been suggested as the best criterion for estimating the influence of livestock on the risk of water scarcity (64). Alternatively, Atzori et al. (65) suggest the use of a “net water footprint index” (WFPnet) for the quantification of water used for the production of animal products. The WFPnet?offsets the water (blue and green) used for feed production by the water that would be used by the natural vegetation cover on the same land surface if crop production were abandoned. In situations where animals predominantly feed on natural vegetation blue water footprint and WFPnet?are virtually identical.

          Available evidence suggests that in East Asia livestock development has significantly contributed to increased water consumption. For China, for instance, Liu et al. (66) contend that the recent rise in meat consumption has pushed the country’s annual?per capita?water requirement for food production up by a factor of 3.4 (from 255 m3?in 1961 to 860 m3). As China’s freshwater resources amount to 2,220 m3?per person, just a quarter of the world average, the biggest threat to livelihoods and food security may be looming water shortages (67). In SSA, given the small percentage of irrigated land and the low use of feed crops, livestock are currently not important drivers of water withdrawal. However, as water is already scarce in large tracts of SSA, decision makers should be aware that future development trajectories of the livestock sector, particularly if associated with significantly increased production of feed crops, might greatly augment (local) water scarcity.

          Biodiversity Loss

          Biodiversity, i.e., diversity within and among species and ecosystems, is one of the determinants of the supply of ecosystem services. Biodiversity loss has negative consequences for the functioning of ecosystems and its services. With regards to provisioning services, crop yields are increased by intraspecific genetic diversity, in plantations, production of wood is enhanced by tree species diversity, and in grasslands plant species diversity augments the production of fodder. With regards to regulating processes and services, increasing plant biodiversity increases resistance to invasive plant species, reduces the prevalence of plant pathogens, such as fungal and viral infections, increases aboveground carbon sequestration, and enhances soil organic matter (68).

          The floral diversity of grasslands is surprisingly high, and the average areal richness of African savanna (≈1,750 species/10,000 km2) is not far below that of rain forest (≈2,020 species) [(69), cited by (70)]. Although commonly used for nomadic and transhumant pastoralism, African grasslands contain by far the widest variety of extant large and medium-sized herbivores (70). Traditional livestock keepers often maintain multi-species and multi-breed herds and flocks to increase their resilience and better cope with climatic and economic shocks (71).

          While livestock are an element of biodiversity, depending on how they are managed, they may contribute to reducing biodiversity through a variety of mechanisms. Grassland degradation, nutrient overloads of land and water, high intensity of land use and land use change, particularly from primary vegetation to cropland or pasture, are leading to a significant reduction in biodiversity as measured by species richness and total abundance (72,?73). In 2014, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List registered 6 419 animal and 3 148 plant species in Africa as threatened with extinction (74). African vertebrate species are estimated to have declined by around 39% since 1970 (75). Species losses are more pronounced in Western and Central Africa than in Eastern or Southern Africa (76). UNEP-WCMC (77) does not provide similar quantitative information for Asia, but states, that “the region recorded the world’s highest number of threatened species in 2014.”

          There is evidence that Asia is experiencing higher biodiversity loss than Africa. Alkemande et al. (78) estimated relative mean species abundance, i.e., the existing abundance of original species relative to species abundance in undisturbed ecosystems, for different world regions for the year 2000. For SSA, they estimated a relative mean species abundance of 0.73 while for South and East Asia their estimate was 0.55, implying higher relative biodiversity loss in Asia than in SSA. However, their estimates indicate that both regions have experienced major losses in biodiversity over the past decades.

          It is a challenge to quantify and value the cost for society due to biodiversity loss, for example because of the difficulties to attach a value to the life of any living organism. That said, there have been attempts to estimate the monetary value of the global welfare losses from the reduction of ecosystem services provided by land-based ecosystems. Between 2000 and 2010 these losses have been estimated to amount to Euro 545 billion, i.e., around Euro 50 billion losses per year, every year (79). Between 2010 and 2050, diminishing ecosystems services are projected to cost society another Euro 12 trillion (idem). With respect to ecosystems, reduced services from natural tropical forests and natural “grasslands” are predicted to cost society Euro 3.9 and 1.7 trillion respectively, i.e., almost half to the total global cost. From a regional perspective, estimates of land-based ecosystems service losses from 2000 to 2050 are Euro 2.4 trillion for Africa, Euro 0.8 trillion for China, and Euro 1.2 trillion for the remainder of South, East and Southeast Asia (idem).

          Recorded extinctions of known species over the past 100 years indicate that current extinction rates are at least 100 times if not 1 000 times greater than rates characteristic of species in the fossil record (80). The ensuing dramatic reduction of biodiversity seriously threatens the functioning of ecosystems and their provision of services to human society. Costanza et al. (81) estimate the value of ecosystems services to have amounted to USD 125 trillion in 2011 (vs. global GDP of USD 73 trillion) and estimates of the cost of biodiversity loss are similar in magnitude to those of other global causes of environmental deterioration such as climate change or nutrient pollution.

          As with most other aspects of environmental degradation, biodiversity loss results from the interplay of diverse component causes making quantitative attribution to a specific cause difficult. However, losses of wildlife in African grasslands are increasingly and primarily attributed to encroachment of agriculture and competition with livestock (21,?82,?83). Driven by rapid human population growth, the former leads to the reduction of grassland areas and their fragmentation while the latter accelerates grassland degradation (21). These effects are exacerbated by increased spatial and temporal variability of rainfall and increased frequency of droughts, and could be exacerbated by a growing livestock population, production intensification, and novel interactions between domesticate animals and wildlife.

          As the long-term security of many ecosystem functions and services—especially in changing environments—is likely to depend upon local biodiversity, local population extinctions are more significant determinants of livelihood impacts than global extinction dynamics. Also, depending on location, the same factor can impact biodiversity through different mechanisms: in East Asia livestock production exerts substantial impact on biodiversity through its contribution to nutrient overloads, while in SSA livestock’s impact on biodiversity is primarily mediated through grassland degradation. Furthermore, local pressures can lead to biodiversity impacts elsewhere, for instance, feed requirements for East and Southeast Asia’s large livestock populations are a contributing factor to deforestation in South America.

          Africa is still rich in biodiversity but, as in Asia, possible development trajectories, including livestock sector development, are likely to reduce plant and animal diversity. African decision-makers, therefore, should pay attention to the connection between livestock sector development and biodiversity when formulating policies and programs for livestock sector development. Gaining on the supply side while losing biodiversity, in fact, could ultimately be a zero, if not a negative sum game for society.

          Greenhouse gas Emissions

          Greenhouse gases from human activities are the most significant driver of observed climate change since the mid-20th century (84). Combined, the three Asian sub-regions generated approximately 40% of total global greenhouse gas emissions (53.5 billion tons) in 2012 while SSA was responsible for <10% (85). Thus, SSA’s contribution to climate change, which to a larger or lesser extent affects all world regions and countries, is relatively modest.

          In 2010, agriculture, forestry and other land use generated approximately one quarter of total global greenhouse gas emissions2?(84). The contribution of agriculture, forestry and other land use to total greenhouse gas emissions varies by region and, in 2010, amounted to around 10% in the three Asian sub-regions vs. 33% in SSA (again with major sub-regional differences on both continents). In absolute terms, South, East and Southeast Asian agriculture emitted about 900, 760 and 450 million tons CO2-equivalent in 2010, respectively, while for Western, Eastern, Central and Southern Africa respective greenhouse gas emissions were 175, 300, 100, and 34 million tons CO2-equivalent (Tables 5,?6).

          Within agriculture, in 2010, direct emissions from livestock production accounted for an estimated 65, 57, and 31% of emissions in South, East, and Southeast Asia, respectively (In Southeast Asia rice alone accounts for around 40% of agricultural emissions). In Western, Eastern, Central and Southern Africa respective values were 76, 75, 36, and 62%. Although livestock contribute higher shares to agricultural greenhouse gas emissions in SSA, in 2010, total greenhouse gas emissions from livestock in SSA amounted to <40% of those in Asia.

          Ruminants, mainly through enteric fermentation and manure left on pasture, account for 90% or more of livestock’s direct greenhouse gas emissions in South Asia and each of the four SSA sub-regions. In East and Southeast Asia the corresponding values are lower, but still around 70%. In all sub-regions, directly attributable greenhouse gas footprints of chicken are below 10% of all livestock-related greenhouse gas emissions.

          On a?per capita?basis, livestock-related greenhouse gas emissions are highest in Eastern and Southern Africa, ~0.6 t CO2-equivalent/year, followed by Western and Central Africa with 0.4 and 0.3 t CO2-equivalent/year in 2010. In the three Asian sub-regions,?per capita?emissions related to livestock production are in the order of 0.2 t CO2-equivalent/year. Although in all regions, with the exception of Southern Africa, absolute amounts of livestock-related greenhouse gas emissions are growing in line with livestock sector growth, on a?per capita?basis they are declining, not only as in many sub-regions human population growth outpaces livestock sector growth, but also because livestock yields are improving and pig and poultry populations are growing faster than ruminant populations. Emissions per kg of animal protein by Asian and SSA sub-region are displayed in?Table 7. Between 1990 and 2010, Asian sub-regions and Southern Africa have reduced their emissions per kg of product by 40% while in Western, Eastern and Central Africa emissions have declined by 10 to 18%.

          Climate change is manifest both in Asia and SSA. In Asia, surface air temperature has been rising while spatial as well as inter-seasonal and inter-annual variability in rainfall has increased. Rises in surface air temperature have been most marked in North Asia and higher in winter than in summer. Mean annual rainfall has decreased in Northeast and North China, Northeast India, Indonesia, some parts of Japan, the Philippines, and in coastal belts and arid plains of Pakistan. By contrast, Bangladesh, western China, China’s Changjiang Valley, the southeastern coast of China, and the western coasts of the Philippines have experienced increases in mean annual rainfall (86).

          For SSA, climate change projections point to a warming trend, particularly in the inland subtropics; frequent occurrence of extreme heat events; increasing aridity; and changes in rainfall, with a particularly pronounced decline in Southern Africa and an increase in Eastern Africa (87). Warming trends have already become evident across the continent, and it is likely that the continent’s 2000 mean annual temperature change will exceed +2°C by 2100. Increasing temperatures will amplify existing water stress, putting additional pressure on agricultural systems, especially in semiarid areas, even if rainfall remains constant (88).

          Climate variability will result in feed crop harvest quantities and quality becoming increasingly volatile (89). For soybeans, for instance, the predicted impact of climate change on yields in 2050 ranged from ?43 to +10%, depending on climate model and adaptation scenario (90). Without adaptation, yields were generally predicted to decline, however with considerable spatial variation. With respect to maize, a systematic literature review by Knox et al. (91) found that for Africa and South Asia predicted yields declined by 5 and 16% respectively, from 2030 to 2100. Feed scarcity and associated sharp increases in feed costs may therefore force animal production to rely more on crop residues and by-products of food destined for human consumption and / or slow down the growth of pig and poultry production.

          Although SSA’s?per capita?emissions are only around 2.4 tons CO2-equivalent/year vs. the global average of 6.2 (European Union around 10, United States of America around 21), 7 of the 10 countries most vulnerable to climate change are located in SSA (92). One of the unifying characteristics of these countries is that they depend heavily on agriculture, with 65% of their combined working population employed in the sector and close to 30% of their overall economic output derived from agricultural revenues.

          Greenhouse gas emissions per kg of animal protein are five times as high in Western, Eastern and Central Africa than in East and Southeast Asia, and three times as high as those in South Asia. These high emissions per kg of animal protein in Western, Eastern and Central Africa are the result of the large share of extensive and semi-intensive ruminant production in the respective livestock sectors. It should be noted that the above are estimates of gross greenhouse gas emissions and do not take into account CO2-equivalent sequestered by the vegetation on which animals are raised (above as well as belowground). For instance, Barretto de Figueiredo et al. (93) estimated that the carbon footprint of beef cattle on managed pastures was reduced from 9.4 to 7.6 kg CO2-equivalent per kg live weight if soil carbon sequestration was included. Integrated crop-cattle-forest systems stored 28.1 kg CO2-equivalent per kg live weight thereby acting as net carbon sink (idem).

          The global potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the livestock sector has been estimated as 2.4 billion tons CO2-equivalent per year, i.e., by about one third. The vast majority of this potential is associated with ruminant species, which are responsible for over 90% of all direct greenhouse gas emissions from livestock. In spite of this potential, few studies have assessed the costs and benefits of different greenhouse gas mitigation practices. Those that have, suggest that between 0.2 and 0.6 billion tons CO2-equivalent of this potential (<10% of livestock emissions and <2% of total emissions) can be realized at a price of USD 50 per ton CO2-equivalent per year, the amount that polluters must pay for their emissions, or be paid to polluters to reduce their emissions (94). This is significantly lower than the total abatement potential, which suggests much of the theoretical potential is not attainable in a cost-effective manner.

          Even though a significant reduction of SSA’s livestock-derived greenhouse gases would have a minimal impact on global greenhouse gas emissions (as they currently represent <1% of global total emissions), they warrant some consideration by African decision-makers because of their importance in international climate change negotiations. Given the strong demand growth for animal source food, SSA’s potential for absolute reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from livestock may be limited, but there is ample scope to reduce greenhouse gas emissions per kg of animal protein through improved grassland management and intensification to reach levels similar to those in South Asia.

          Conclusion

          Africa has been one of the fastest-growing economic regions of the world in the past decades and prospects for the future are good because of exponential population growth; gains in real per capita income; rapid urbanization; technology adoption; political vision and commitment. The continent is thus expected to dramatically change in the coming decades, including its agriculture and, within agriculture, its livestock sector. As GDP and consumer purchasing power grow, so will the demand for animal source foods such as meat and milk. The anticipated expansion of livestock production and associated value chains is expected to largely satisfy consumers’ demand, but could also have negative effects on public health, the environment and livelihoods. Generating evidence on the trade-offs of livestock sector development, therefore, is essential for decision-makers to take effective policy decisions.

          As of today, the impact of livestock on the environment is by far less pervasive in SSA than in Asia, but the anticipated expansion of livestock production and associated value chains, if uncontrolled, is very likely to have negative effects on the environment from soil through water to air and biodiversity. SSA decision-makers should be aware and draw lessons from the past trends of livestock growth in Asia to design and implement policies that effectively manage the trade-offs associated with livestock sector transformation, including environment, livelihoods and public health dimensions. Researchers should facilitate informed decisions not only by refining existing models that generate evidence on the impact of livestock on selected environmental domains, such as soil, water, air and biodiversity, but also by developing models that assist in simultaneously and systematically assess the trade-offs of livestock sector policies and investments on all major environmental dimensions, which would allow the efficient allocation of scarce resources for a sustainable development of livestock in the long-term.

          (From “Frontiers in Veterinary Science“??Published on 22 February 2019)

          Send your message to us:

          INQUIRY NOW
          • * CAPTCHA: Please select the Plane


          Post time: May-15-2022
          WhatsApp Online Chat !
          樱花草视频在线观看高清免费观看,丁香婷婷色五月激情综合深爱,翁熄粗长粗大满足少妇,亚洲国产精品国自产拍AV
          欧美大屁股喷潮水XXXX 奶水涨翁公帮我吸 欧美变态口味重另类在线视频 av无码电影一区二区三区 男男开荤粗肉BY牛奶与黄油 大战丰满人妻50P 少妇人妻偷人精品无码视频 法国性XXXXX极品 中文 无码 亚洲制服 师生 52影院 无翼鸟邪恶漫画 《隔壁放荡人妻bd高清》 古代四大美女 国产AV一区二区二三区冫 成人午夜性A级毛片免费 h肉动漫无码无修6080动漫网 强奷漂亮少妇高潮A片app下载 无码人妻精品一区二区三区99 国产卡二卡三卡四乱码分类 在线电影 久久久久久久精品成人热 色综合久久久久久久久五月 色偷偷偷在线视频播放 国产激情一区二区三区小说 色偷偷一区二区无码视频 久久人人爽爽爽人久久久 亚洲va久久久噜噜噜久久天堂 久久人妻无码一区二区三区av 阴道前壁膨出 啊~cao死你个小sao货视频 色欲精品国产一区二区三区AV 男女打扑克 AV无码久久久久不卡网站 ZOOSKVIDEOS性欧美 亚洲男女一区二区三区 最近中文字幕完整国语 欧文 精品无码三级在线观看视频 亚洲欧美日韩国产成人精品影院 疯狂伦交550篇合集小说txt下载 无码人妻精品一区二区三区99性 国产学生情侣久久AV 色欲AV无码一区二区三区 床上视频 把舌头伸进她腿间花缝 苏雪 男女嘿咻激烈爱爱动态图 疯狂伦交一女多男视频 亲嘴视频 久久小说 国产成人69视频午夜福利在线观看 色窝窝无码一区二区三区 伊人影院 欧美性大战久久久久久久 久久精品无码一区二区软件 白带发黄内裤上干了像一层壳 丰满人妻熟妇乱又仑精品 欧洲人妻丰满av无码久久不卡 快添捏我的奶头我要受不了了 国产精品va无码一区二区 真实人与人性恔配视频 亚洲精品乱码久久久久久不卡 久久久久久久综合综合狠狠 为什么放进去女的就老实了 精品香蕉99久久久久网站 国产精品久久国产精品99盘 国产免费高清理伦片A片快速播放 在办公室挺进市长美妇雪臀 小辣椒导航污污午夜福利 欧美变态口味重另类在线视频 别揉我奶头~嗯~啊~漫画网站 天天躁日日躁狠狠躁欧美老妇小说 亚洲国产精品一区二区九九 精品国产免费一区二区三区 强奷漂亮少妇高潮A片app下载 韩国漫画漫免费观看免费 欧美亚洲日韩国产人成在线播放 少妇被粗大的猛烈进出视频 sm小说 无码人妻视频一区二区三区 asspics亚洲美女裸体chinese 风流女管家 够了够了已经满到c了学校作文 久久久精品人妻久久影视 久久久久精品无码AV人妖 AAA级久久久精品无码片 国产精品亚洲日韩AⅤ在线 古装激情偷乱人伦视频 japonensisjava中文版 女同 国产做A爱免费视频在线观看 美女的胸 久久久无码精品亚洲日韩京东传媒 成人国内精品久久久久影院 被CAO的喷水站不起来了 抽插视频 亲嘴视频 我的性奴的肉玩具1一17心奴 狠狠躁天天躁无码中文字幕 疯狂伦交一女多男视频 午夜精品A片一区二区三区资源看 婷婷成人丁香七月综合激情 亚洲老熟女@TUBEUMTV 波多野结衣av 从头啪到尾全肉小黄书完整 成 人 十 八 黄 色 网 站视频 免费看AV 暖爱免费观看高清视频 精品久久久久久亚洲熟女 久久人妻无码一区二区三区av 日本熟妇色VIDEOS 迷你特工队 欧美另类极度残忍拳头交 国产精品精品一区二区三区 国产精品午夜无码AV天美传媒 亚洲va国产va天堂va久久 国产AV无码专区亚洲精品 chinesemature老熟妇高潮 好吊妞 阴道前壁膨出 欧美色视频日本片免费 h高潮娇喘抽搐老师男男 精品国产一区二区三区久久 为什么放进去女的就老实了 亚洲美女高潮久久久久 久久人人爽爽爽人久久久 亚洲av无码久久无遮挡 av无码精品一区二区三区宅噜噜 亚洲爆乳中文字幕无码专区网站 无码精品视频一区二区三区 把舌头伸进她腿间花缝 苏雪 日本熟妇XXⅩ浓密黑毛HD 男人扒开添女人下部免费视频 精品久久久久久亚洲熟女 插插xX免费A片 沈阳60老熟女高潮 老扒翁熄系列40 天堂AV无码亚洲AV无码 亚洲av无码专区亚洲av桃花庵 секс 日本видео 热热色 许你万丈光芒好 美女人体艺术 精品国产免费一区二区三区 国产精品无码AV在线播放 久久99久久99精品中文字幕 国产成人人综合亚洲欧美丁香花 asspics亚洲美女裸体chinese 久久精品无码一区二区软件 亚洲欧美另类成人综合图片 国产精品白浆无码流出视频 国产乱人伦App精品久久 我玩弄美艳馊子高潮 我把护士日出水了视频90分钟 沈阳60老熟女高潮 国产精品亚洲日韩AⅤ在线 性强烈的欧美三级视频 发现妈妈每天偷偷和别人聊天 一个人在线视频免费观看www 韩国女主播 国产热の有码热の无码视频 销魂老女人老泬 久久久久久久99精品免费观看 97超碰中文字幕久久精品 色AV综合AV综合无码网站 日本男吃奶玩乳30分钟视频 忘忧草WWW社区韩国日本 另类小说 色综合网站 艳mu无删减在线观看免费无码 欧文 语文课代表哭着说不能再深了 把舌头伸进她腿间花缝 苏雪 xxxx18野外xxxxfreexxxx日本 手机在线电影 绝地战龙全本免费阅读 美女网站色 天天操天天干 natalia 黑人大 长 吊video 欧美V亚洲V综合V国产V 欧美亚洲国产精品久久蜜芽直播 韩国漫画漫免费观看免费 52影院 我故意没有穿内裤坐公车让 十八禁漫画无遮挡 欧美人与动牲交ZOOZ乌克兰 亚洲精品无码久久毛片 午夜精品A片一区二区三区资源看 欧美男男作爱VIDEOS可播放 人善交VIDE欧美 亚洲码欧美码一区二区三区 亲嘴视频 老师把我抱到办公室揉我胸h 大学生囗交口爆吞精在线视频 男人j进女人j的免费视频 老扒翁熄系列40 婷婷成人丁香七月综合激情 男人j进女人j的免费视频 两阴夹一阳 极品熟妇大蝴蝶20P 人妻性奴波多野结衣无码 久久av高潮av无码av 啊~cao死你个小sao货视频 清纯校花的被cao日常np h肉动漫无码无修6080动漫网 老熟妇HD小伙子另类 国产精品久久一区二区三区 亚洲乱码一区二区三区在线观看 AV无码精品久久久久精品免费 Japanese少妇高潮喷水 动漫精品啪啪一区二区三区 亚洲人成网站999久久久综合 日b视频 中文字幕人妻色偷偷久久 少妇人妻久久无码专区 久久人人爽爽爽人久久久 乳色吐息 她的小梨涡 久久人妻无码一区二区三区av 波多野结衣中文字幕一区二区三区 丰满少妇XXXXX 韩国电影在线观看 亚洲精品乱码久久久久久不卡 国产色噜噜噜在线精品 暖爱免费观看高清视频 亚洲va国产va天堂va久久 一区二区 999导航 亚洲国产精品久久久久秋霞影院 色戒在线 黄色的网站 看色客 迷你特工队 70岁色老头oldmanvideos 插插xX免费A片 福利视频 玩物 久久av高潮av无码av 国产AV一区二区三区无码野战 床上视频 一个人的在线观看WWW 男人j进女人j的免费视频 欧美大屁股喷潮水XXXX 忘忧草在线影院WWW日本韩国 小妖精抬起臀嗯啊h太子妃 国产学生情侣久久AV 小破孩网站www 51漫画 男人j进女人j的免费视频 国产成A人片在线观看视频下载 为什么放进去女的就老实了 疯狂做受XXXX国产 成年免费大片黄在线观看20片 手机福利视频 国产片免费福利片永久 永久无码日韩A片免费看 999导航 中文字幕精品无码亚洲字幕日韩 暴君的疯狂索爱 毛多水多WWW偷窥小便 久久久久久伊人高潮影院 第一次 精品久久久久久无码人妻vr 在办公室挺进市长美妇雪臀 一本一道波多野结衣av黑人 天天狠天天透天干天天怕∴ 深夜视频在线免费 国产美女久久久浪潮AV 一区二区 美女自拍 免费看AV 老美AA片 亚洲 欧美 激情 小说 另类 辣文小说 好吊妞 无码国产精品一区二区免费模式 欧美精品九九久久久久久久久 野花社区视频WWW 小破孩网站www 女士的法则电视剧免费观看 日本少妇被黑人XXXXX AV无码精品久久久久精品免费 欧美乱人伦久久精品A片 中老年网站 在线精品亚洲一区二区动态图 伊人久久大香线蕉av五月天宝贝 一本久道久久丁香狠狠躁 爱恋 亚洲 欧美 动漫 少妇 自拍 玩物 无码精品视频一区二区三区 成人区人妻精品一区二区不卡网站 从头啪到尾全肉小黄书完整 日韩毛片 色丁香 日本无遮真人祼交视频 一本色道久久88—综合亚洲精品 人妻激情偷乱视频一区二区三区 够了够了已经满到c了学校作文 亚洲男同帅gay片在线观看 好大好湿好硬顶到了好爽 国产精品va无码一区二区 FREE性开放小少妇 一个人在线视频免费观看www 女士的法则电视剧免费观看 777亚洲精品乱码久久久久久 美女隐私直播 最近2019中文字幕在线 色婷婷六月亚洲综合香蕉 无码精品视频一区二区三区 中文字幕精品无码亚洲字幕蜜芽 男人j进女人j的免费视频 久久av高潮av无码av 把舌头伸进她腿间花缝 苏雪 少妇人妻偷人精品无码视频 啊~cao死你个小sao货视频 暖爱免费观看高清视频 FREE性开放小少妇 欲奴 av网址大全 亚洲美女高潮久久久久 肮脏的交易 永久无码日韩A片免费看 成 人 十 八 黄 色 网 站视频 亚洲综合激情五月丁香六月 ZOOSKVIDEOS性欧美 国模精品一区二区三区 色狠狠AV老熟女 日本熟熟妇XXXXX精品熟妇 小雪公交车灌满好爽 久久av高潮av无码av 我的好妈妈4韩国中字 天天爽夜夜爽夜夜爽 久久精品无码一区二区软件 我的好妈妈4韩国中字 成年免费大片黄在线观看20片 骚男干过的熟妇 久久综合九色综合 人妻精品久久久久中文字幕 中文字幕人妻色偷偷久久 AV边做边流奶水无码免费 玉婷阁 久久久久久伊人高潮影院 AAA级久久久精品无码片 娇妻穿开档内裤陪客户 好兄弟和自己的妈妈 两阴夹一阳 51午夜精品免费视频 欧美乱人伦久久精品A片 久久综合九色综合 国产乡下三级全黄三级BD 黑龙江大学校园信息门户 人与嘼ZOZO免费观看 日本熟妇乱人伦XXXXBa 古代四大美女 久久99久久99精品中文字幕 日本AAAAA片爽快免费中国 无码人妻精品一区二区三区99性 11孩岁女精品a片 淫欲的代价 51午夜精品免费视频 久久久国产不卡一区二区 黄色的网站 24小时日本免费高清视频 国产小呦泬泬99精品 郑州轻工业大学 国产日产欧产美 无码人妻视频一区二区三区 古代四大美女 台湾佬自拍偷区亚洲综合 欧美性VIDEOS高清精品 国产婷婷色一区二区三区 国产精品无码AV在线播放 暖暖 免费 高清 日本 在线 欧美精品九九久久久久久久久 亚洲老熟女@TUBEUMTV 精品久久久一区二区三区 成 人 十 八 黄 色 网 站视频 亚洲va国产va天堂va久久 日本老熟MATUREBBW子乱 精品一区二区三区无码亚洲 国产三级精品三级在线专1 久久久国产精品免费A片分 国产精品女同一区二区 natalia 黑人大 长 吊video 亚洲国产精品一区二区九九 国产日韩a视频在线播放视频 永久无码日韩A片免费看 日本三级片网站 欧美最猛激情性AAAAA 国产av无码专区亚洲av毛片搜 翁公把我的腿分得更开 激情97综合亚洲色婷婷五 国产免费高清理伦片A片快速播放 国产精品白浆无码流出视频 成 人 黄 色 网 站 在线播放视 精品香蕉99久久久久网站 ZOOSKVIDEOS性欧美 久久久国产不卡一区二区 欧美大屁股喷潮水XXXX 热热色 玉婷阁 办公室的超薄丝袜人妻献身 精品国产免费一区二区三区 AV边做边流奶水无码免费 一区二区 日韩人妻无码精品无码中文字幕 爽爽爽精品一区二区三区 又大又粗又爽A级毛片免费看 强奷乱码中文字幕乱老妇 玩物 免费A级毛片无码A∨性按摩 欧美大屁股喷潮水XXXX 精品国产一区二区三广区 国产精品美女久久久m 国产BBB内射 亚洲国产精品国自产拍AV 日本护士XXXXX在线播放 国产日产美产精品精品 男人扒开添女人下部免费视频 国产日产美产精品精品 成熟人妻换XXXX 久久爱 精品国模一区二区三区 亚洲色av天天天天天天 少妇XXXXX性开放 边吃奶边摸下很爽护士 插插xX免费A片 毛片免费全部无码播放 我和子发生了性关系视频 男人扒开添女人下部免费视频 亚洲va久久久噜噜噜久久天堂 新版天堂资源中文WWW连接 村里美人香免费全文小说 欧美男男作爱VIDEOS可播放 欧洲人妻丰满av无码久久不卡 毛多水多WWW偷窥小便 国产美女被遭强高潮免费网站 国产ChineseHDXXXXTube对白 亚洲精品99久久久久中文字幕 人妻办公室屈辱呻吟 av网址 欧美人C交ZOOZ0OXX 天堂在线WWW天堂在线最新版 清纯校花的被cao日常np 强奷漂亮少妇高潮A片 毛茸茸性xxxx毛茸茸毛茸茸 强奷乱码中文字幕乱老妇 天天狠天天透天干天天怕∴ 亚洲色av天天天天天天 ASS鲜嫩鲜嫩PICS日本 18禁无遮挡啪啪摇乳动态图 久久99精品久久久久久婷婷 亚洲无线码一区二区三区 亚洲AV成人片无码网站网 爱恋 淫乱男女 久久久久av无码免费网 成 人 黄 色 网 站 在线播放视 JLZZ日本人年轻护士出水视频 国产三级精品三级在线专1 肮脏的交易 免费公妇仑乱在线观看 美女裸体爆乳免费网站 国产精品国产亚洲区艳妇糸列短篇 国产精品无码AV在线播放 国产热の有码热の无码视频 永久无码日韩A片免费看 精品无码国产AV一区二区 撕开奶罩疯狂揉吮奶头 语文课代表哭着说不能再深了 无码丰满熟妇浪潮一区二区Av 精品国产免费一区二区三区 美女浴室洗澡裸体爆乳无遮挡 亚洲色偷拍另类无码专区 亚洲欧美另类成人综合图片 清纯校花的被cao日常np 黄色视频网站 白带发黄内裤上干了像一层壳 久久综合香蕉国产蜜臀AV 天堂在线WWW 一本久道久久丁香狠狠躁 日日摸日日踫夜夜爽无码 黄色视频网站 欧美人精品XO FREE性开放小少妇 国内精品伊人久久久久777 色狠狠AV老熟女 国产精品白浆无码流出视频 十八禁工口里番全色彩无遮挡 边吃奶边摸下很爽护士 欧美精品老少配老妇 国产免费高清理伦片A片快速播放 国产AV无码专区亚洲精品 小妖精抬起臀嗯啊h太子妃 迷你特工队 小破孩网站www 男女啪啪视频 忘忧草www yy大杂烩 国产成年无码A片在线观看麻豆 欧美性爱a片 日本乱偷互换人妻中文字幕 ASS鲜嫩鲜嫩PICS日本 村里美人香免费全文小说 h高潮娇喘抽搐老师男男 欧美极品少妇XXXXⅩ喷水 三级视频 国产精品亚洲日韩AⅤ在线 老美AA片 欧美大屁股喷潮水XXXX 欲奴 yy大杂烩 怎样才算皮包过长 中文字幕被公侵犯的漂亮人妻 国产精品久久国产精品99盘 极品熟妇大蝴蝶20P 久久99精品久久久久久噜噜 日本无遮真人祼交视频 久久人搡人人玩人妻精品首页 国产女人18毛片水真多18精品 天天操天天干 老熟妇HD小伙子另类 好男人www在线观看视频 欧美性VIDEOS高清精品 欧美极品少妇XXXXⅩ喷水 同性两男A片黄在线观看 巨胸喷奶水视频www免费动漫 亚洲综合激情五月丁香六月 韩国电影在线观看 暴君的疯狂索爱 国产精品亚洲日韩AⅤ在线 通房娇宠 我的性奴的肉玩具1一17心奴 我和亲妺婷婷在浴室作爱经过 日本老熟MATUREBBW子乱 国产美女被遭强高潮免费网站 中文字幕被公侵犯的漂亮人妻 av永久天堂一区二区三区 999久久久免费精品国产 少妇XXXXX性开放 亚洲色婷婷一区二区三区 bl高h猛烈失禁潮喷男男教室 男男开荤粗肉BY牛奶与黄油 久久久久久久精品一区二区三区 男人扒开添女人下部免费视频 性强烈的欧美三级视频 最近国语视频在线观看 小雪公交车灌满好爽 我和亲妺婷婷在浴室作爱经过 古装激情偷乱人伦视频 av网址 亚洲av永久无码精品无码 丝袜人妻一区二区三区网站 久久精品国产乱子伦 翁公把我的腿分得更开 无码人妻视频一区二区三区 老阿姨才是最有味的 免费 免费A级毛片无码A∨性按摩 久久人妻无码一区二区三区av 亚洲一区二区三区高清在线观看 好男人www在线观看视频 办公室的超薄丝袜人妻献身 色偷偷偷在线视频播放 好兄弟和自己的妈妈 农民伯伯乡下妹 天黑黑影院在线观看免费 国产成A人片在线观看视频下载 色综合AV综合无码综合网站 两阴夹一阳 够了够了已经满到c了学校作文 女人下部隐私图片.(不遮挡) 午夜剧场 国产人妻 成人午夜性A级毛片免费 无码人妻视频一区二区三区 亚洲欧美另类成人综合图片 老熟妇HD小伙子另类 精品香蕉99久久久久网站 好吊妞 无码人妻精品一区二区三区99 女人自慰 波多野结衣av 欧美人与动牲交ZOOZ乌克兰 日本熟妇色VIDEOS 欧美人C交ZOOZ0OXX 无码免费一区二区三区免费播放 欧美亚洲国产精品久久蜜芽直播 亚洲丰满熟女一区二区v 午夜无码人妻AV大片色欲 人妻厨房出轨上司HD院线 free嫩白的18sex性 小雪公交车灌满好爽 男男gv纯肉无码免费播放 AV边做边流奶水无码免费 语文课代表哭着说不能再深了 人妻激情偷乱视频一区二区三区 无码AV人妻一区二区三区四区 精品无码三级在线观看视频 午夜精品A片一区二区三区资源看 国产日产欧产美 我和子发生了性关系视频 无码一区二区三区中文字幕 精品无码AV人妻系列网站 最新毛片婷婷99精品视频 欧美性大战久久久久久久 久久久国产精品免费A片分 最近国语视频在线观看 男人j进女人j的免费视频 我的好妈妈4韩国中字 亚洲AV成人无码久久www 男人扒开添女人下部免费视频 免费无码AⅤ片在线观看 国产精品久久久久久精品电影 AV无码AV在线A∨天堂毛片 h肉动漫无码无修6080动漫网 女人用品专卖店 亚洲AV无码AV在线影院 国产色噜噜噜在线精品 私人vps一夜爽毛片免费9 国产成年无码A片在线观看麻豆 免费看AV 国模大胆无码私拍啪啪AV 中文字幕精品无码亚洲字幕蜜芽 久久男人Av资源网站无码软件 久久免费看黄A级毛片连期A片 亚洲va国产va天堂va久久 人与嘼ZOZO免费观看 欧美大屁股喷潮水XXXX 日本工口里番H彩色无遮挡全彩 傲世猛龙齐等闲玉小龙 国产精品国产亚洲区艳妇糸列短篇 FREE性开放小少妇 女人自慰 成人午夜性A级毛片免费 日本护士XXXXX在线播放 欧美性稚交6-12 CHINESE国产HD中国熟女 美女人体艺术 av无码精品一区二区三区宅噜噜 国产乡下三级全黄三级BD 够了够了已经满到c了学校作文 亚洲色精品一区二区三区 中文字幕二区av人妻少妇 狂野欧美性猛交XXXX 成熟yⅰn荡的美妇a片 欧美大屁股喷潮水XXXX 日本无遮真人祼交视频 色欲av网 暴君的疯狂索爱 国产丝袜无码一区二区三区视频 精品亚洲AV乱码一区二区三区 别揉我奶头嗯~啊~的视频网站 国产精品女同一区二区 两阴夹一阳 国产精品久久国产精品99盘 国产精品毛片一区二区 最近的2019中文字幕免费 无码人妻丰满熟妇啪啪网不卡 一个人在线视频免费观看www 法国性XXXXX极品 成人A片在线观看免费播放 欧美人精品XO 窝窝人体 无码一区二区三区中文字幕 最近中文字幕完整国语 AV无码精品一区二区三区 国产高潮流白浆喷水免费网站 中文字幕被公侵犯的漂亮人妻 暴君的疯狂索爱 亚洲AV中文无码乱人伦在线视色 日本三级片网站 好男人www在线观看视频 精品一区二区三区无码亚洲 h高潮娇喘抽搐老师男男 老阿姨才是最有味的 中文字幕被公侵犯的漂亮人妻 国产高潮流白浆喷水免费网站 国产成人AV一区二区三区在线观看 性一交一乱一伦A片www 黑龙江大学校园信息门户 办公室的超薄丝袜人妻献身 换着玩人妻HD中文字幕 国产日产美产精品精品 免费无码又爽又刺激高潮视频 在人线AV无码免费高潮喷水 性色av 精品无码三级在线观看视频 最新国产乱人伦偷精品免费网站 亚洲男同帅gay片在线观看 我的好妈妈4高清在线观看完整版 亚洲精品无码不卡在线播放he 日本熟妇乱人伦XXXXBa 把舌头伸进她腿间花缝 苏雪 欧美V亚洲V综合V国产V 亚洲中文字幕无码AV一区 久久电影网 人妻熟妇乱又伦精品视频APP 忘忧草WWW社区韩国日本 嗯…啊潮喷喝水高h男男 久久99久久99精品中文字幕 中文字幕精品无码亚洲字幕日韩 我和亲妺婷婷在浴室作爱经过 别揉我奶头嗯~啊~的视频网站 亚洲肥老太BBW中国熟女 国产VPS私人片 国产农村乱人伦精品视频 沈阳60老熟女高潮 傲世猛龙齐等闲玉小龙 欧美性VIDEOS高清精品 久久久久亚洲va无码区首页 乳色吐息 日本公妇仑乱中文字幕 国产免费高清理伦片A片快速播放 婷婷成人丁香七月综合激情 国产精品无码AV在线播放 99香蕉国产精品偷在线观看 久久久婷婷五月亚洲97号色 啊~cao死你个小sao货视频 日韩电影 骚男干过的熟妇 人妻办公室屈辱呻吟 韩国三级 AV边做边流奶水无码免费 波多野结衣高潮av在线播放 人妻激情另类乱人伦人妻 a无码国产激情视频 美女的胸 国产三级精品三级在线专1 熟妇女人妻619丰满少妇 阴道前壁膨出 AV边做边流奶水无码免费 国产精品亚洲AV三区国产伟业 绝色教师美妇沉沦为玩物 裸体美女扒开尿口视频在线播放 免费a级毛片高清在钱 国产精品亚洲日韩AⅤ在线 在线电影 中文字幕被公侵犯的漂亮人妻 大战丰满人妻50P 郑州轻工业大学 777亚洲精品乱码久久久久久 英语老师解开裙子坐我腿中间 女士的法则电视剧免费观看 国模大胆无码私拍啪啪AV asspics亚洲美女裸体chinese h肉动漫无码无修6080动漫网 一本一道波多野结衣av黑人 成熟丰满熟妇高潮XXXXX 人妻厨房出轨上司HD院线 亚洲爆乳无码一区二区三区 漂亮人妻洗澡被公强啪啪 天黑黑影院在线观看免费 99精品人妻无码专区在线视频 好吊妞 国产ChineseHDXXXXTube对白 公么吃奶摸下面好舒服 sm小说 日韩精品无码综合福利网 欧美最猛激情性AAAAA 欧美综合亚洲日韩精品区 真实人与人性恔配视频 久久无码精品一区二区三区 三上悠亚公侵犯344在线观看 日本熟妇乱人伦A骗高清免费观看 我故意没有穿内裤坐公车让 亚洲码欧美码一区二区三区 欧美V亚洲V综合V国产V 辣文小说 把冰块一块一块推进的游戏 asspics亚洲美女裸体chinese 婷婷大伊香蕉五月天视频 国内精品美女A∨在线播放 大学生扒开粉嫩喷白浆 香蕉久久久久久av成人 快添捏我的奶头我要受不了了 国产三级精品三级在线专1 情侣作爱视频 免费 色屋 亚洲人成无码www久久久 人与嘼ZOZO免费观看 女人下部隐私图片.(不遮挡) 成年免费视频黄网站在线观看 久久精品无码一区二区软件 精品国产一区二区三广区 国语少妇高潮对白在线 韩国女主播 一个人免费播放在线观看 精品久久久噜噜噜久久久 娇喘 国产片免费福利片永久 久久人搡人人玩人妻精品首页 我把护士日出水了视频90分钟 小雪公交车灌满好爽 国产精品亚洲AV三区国产伟业 久久久久国产精品熟女影院 许你万丈光芒好 欧美亚洲日韩国产人成在线播放 国产婷婷色一区二区三区 老熟妇仑乱一区二区三区 人妻激情偷乱视频一区二区三区 看色客 伊人影院 免费无遮挡肉动漫在线观看免费 韩国电影在线观看 国产三级精品三级在线专1 我爱卡 国产精品午夜无码AV天美传媒 啊~cao死你个小sao货视频 欧美性VIDEOS高清精品 把冰块一块一块推进的游戏 久久99国产乱子伦精品免费 久久久无码精品亚洲日韩京东传媒 yy大杂烩 美女裸体爆乳免费网站 777亚洲精品乱码久久久久久 亚洲AV成人无码久久www 法国性XXXXX极品 永久免费毛片在线播放 迷你特工队 国产农村乱人伦精品视频 久久99精品久久久久久噜噜 美女裸体爆乳免费网站 h动漫 香蕉久久久久久av成人 别揉我奶头~嗯~啊~漫画网站 无码人妻精品一区二区三区99 日本少妇被黑人XXXXX 国产成年无码A片在线观看麻豆 午夜精品A片一区二区三区资源看 国产自偷亚洲精品页65页 亚洲色av天天天天天天 疯狂做受XXXX国产 韩国激情电影 午夜福利国产成人A∨在线观看 激情97综合亚洲色婷婷五 另类小说 色综合网站 777亚洲精品乱码久久久久久 国语少妇高潮对白在线 私人vps一夜爽毛片免费9 飞机打多了属于肾阴虚还是肾阳虚 天天狠天天透天干天天怕∴ 丰满少妇XXXXX 亚洲人成网站999久久久综合 又大又粗又爽A级毛片免费看 换着玩人妻HD中文字幕 欧文 好吊操视频 无码免费一区二区三区免费播放 爱恋 久久男人Av资源网站无码软件 中文字幕精品无码亚洲字幕日韩 ASS鲜嫩鲜嫩PICS日本 18禁高潮出水呻吟娇喘AV 韩国电影在线观看 傲世猛龙齐等闲玉小龙 美女浴室洗澡裸体爆乳无遮挡 快添捏我的奶头我要受不了了 国产免费高清理伦片A片快速播放 欧美性VIDEOS高清精品 迷你特工队 久久男人Av资源网站无码软件 农民伯伯乡下妹 免费无码又爽又刺激高潮视频 h动漫 直接观看黄网站免费视频 摸胸视频 好男人www在线观看视频 中文字幕二区av人妻少妇 又大又粗又爽A级毛片免费看 一本色道久久综合亚洲精品 中文字幕二区av人妻少妇 11孩岁女精品a片 毛多水多WWW偷窥小便 好兄弟和自己的妈妈 汗だく爆乳中出しプレスめぐり 国产成人AV一区二区三区在线观看 三级视频 sm小说 换着玩人妻HD中文字幕 国产精品爽爽ⅴa在线观看 久久精品中文字幕无码绿巨人 国产a片 老师把我抱到办公室揉我胸h 无码精品视频一区二区三区 天黑黑影院在线观看免费 傲世猛龙齐等闲玉小龙 亚洲av永久无码精品无码 爱恋 狂野欧美性猛交XXXX 啪啪AV大全导航福利 国产成人69视频午夜福利在线观看 国产美女被遭强高潮免费网站 摸胸视频 忘忧草在线影院WWW日本韩国 亚洲欧美另类成人综合图片 亚洲国产精品一区二区九九 怎样才算皮包过长 国产成年无码A片在线观看麻豆 亚洲一区二区三区 中文字幕人妻色偷偷久久 爱恋 真实人与人性恔配视频 永久免费毛片在线播放 国产乱人伦App精品久久 欧美大屁股喷潮水XXXX 一本色道久久88—综合亚洲精品 国产丝袜无码一区二区三区视频 51vv天堂社区 风流女管家 欧美亚洲日韩国产人成在线播放 亚洲AV成人片无码网站网 无码免费一区二区三区免费播放 久久久精品人妻久久影视 在线无码 国产a v无码专区亚洲av 52影院 黑龙江大学校园信息门户 精品国产一区二区三广区 久久综合九色综合 女生的奶奶是什么样的呢 欧美精品九九久久久久久久久 欧美性爱a片 国产AV一区二区二三区冫 最近国语视频在线观看 久久久国产精品免费A片分 天天操天天干 被CAO的喷水站不起来了 亚洲人成无码www久久久 边吃奶边摸下很爽护士 国产片免费福利片永久 郑州轻工业大学 日本少妇被黑人XXXXX 为什么放进去女的就老实了 亚洲午夜精品A片一区二区无码l 国产学生情侣久久AV 法国性XXXXX极品 色偷偷偷在线视频播放 三上悠亚公侵犯344在线观看 816 4D肉蒲团之性奴大战奶水 JAPAN粗暴VIDEO高潮 最新国产乱人伦偷精品免费网站 疯狂伦交550篇合集小说txt下载 永久免费毛片在线播放 我把护士日出水了视频90分钟 插插xX免费A片 国产精品久久国产精品99盘 日韩人妻双飞无码精品久久 双飞闺蜜呻吟交换 大桥未久亚洲无av码在线 偷窥日本少妇撒尿COm 一区二区 一区二区 日韩人妻无码精品无码中文字幕 日韩人妻无码精品无码中文字幕 玉婷阁 AAA级久久久精品无码片 亚洲色偷拍另类无码专区 人妻激情偷乱视频一区二区三区 乳色吐息 亚洲色婷婷一区二区三区 成人A片在线观看免费播放 又大又粗又爽A级毛片免费看 日本护士XXXXX在线播放 成熟yⅰn荡的美妇a片 爱恋 迷你特工队 飞机打多了属于肾阴虚还是肾阳虚 人人爽天天碰天天躁夜夜躁 玉婷阁 亚洲va久久久噜噜噜久久天堂 娇妻穿开档内裤陪客户 亚洲影院 绝色教师美妇沉沦为玩物 我的好妈妈4韩国中字 久久免费看黄A级毛片连期A片 国产精品爽爽ⅴa在线观看 女人用品专卖店 暴君的疯狂索爱 亚洲男同帅gay片在线观看 舌苔厚黄是什么原因引起的 99国产精品自在自在久久 欧美性VIDEOS高清精品 精品久久久一区二区三区 日本护士XXXXX在线播放 亚洲av无码专区亚洲av桃花庵 啪啪无码人妻丰满熟妇 成人无码a级毛片免费 国产精品白浆无码流出视频 我把护士日出水了视频90分钟 无码AV人妻一区二区三区四区 久久人妻无码一区二区三区av 4D肉蒲团之性奴大战奶水 风流女管家 Japanese少妇高潮喷水 久久综合香蕉国产蜜臀AV 24小时免费观看完整视频 男女嘿咻激烈爱爱动态图 久久小说 熟妇女人妻619丰满少妇 晚上睡不着偷偷看B站 亚洲 自拍 另类 欧美 综合 在线无码 国产裸拍裸体视频在线观看 欧美人妻天天爽夜夜爽欧美色院 骚男干过的熟妇 欧美日韩中文国产一区 快添捏我的奶头我要受不了了 美美的免费视频 热久久 啪啪AV大全导航福利 美女人体艺术 日本护士XXXXX在线播放 老板办公室乳摸GIF动态图 国产麻豆剧果冻传媒星空视频 阴道前壁膨出 无码精品人妻一区二区三区影院 国产AV一区二区二三区冫 白带发黄内裤上干了像一层壳 亚洲AV无码AV在线影院 中文字幕精品无码亚洲字幕日韩 欧美性大战久久久久久久 Japanese五十路熟女 两根一起公憩止痒三十篇 国产ChineseHDXXXXTube对白 亚洲av无码久久无遮挡 国产精品白浆无码流出视频 亚洲欧美日韩国产成人精品影院 久久精品中文字幕无码绿巨人 欧美熟妇ZOZOZO 我玩弄美艳馊子高潮 131美女 AV无码久久久久不卡网站 国产精品亚洲日韩AⅤ在线 久久人人爽爽爽人久久久 中文字幕被公侵犯的漂亮人妻 久久婷婷五月综合色欧美 无码精品视频一区二区三区 asspics亚洲美女裸体chinese 亚洲肥老太BBW中国熟女 两根一起公憩止痒三十篇 日本AAAAA片爽快免费中国 欧美性AAA片在线观看 欧美黄片 一个人免费播放在线观看 色欲AV无码一区二区三区 国产无遮挡又爽又黄大胸免费 巨胸喷奶水视频www免费动漫 热久久 精品无码国产AV一区二区 国产小呦泬泬99精品 无码专区狠狠躁躁天天躁 乡野欲潮 换着玩人妻HD中文字幕 边吃奶边摸下很爽护士 久久久国产精品免费A片分 帅老头GA丫帅老头GAY视频 裸体美女扒开尿口视频在线播放 免费无码又爽又刺激高潮视频 热热色 久久久久国产综合AV天堂 大桥未久亚洲无av码在线 看色客 51vv天堂社区 乡野欲潮 久久久久久久综合综合狠狠 欧美色视频日本片免费 我的好妈妈4高清在线观看完整版 ZOOSKVIDEOS性欧美 终于得到了母亲 最近国语视频在线观看 精品无码三级在线观看视频 国产在线精品二区 小雪公交车灌满好爽 色屋 男女打扑克 亚洲欧美日韩国产成人精品影院 国产精品爽爽ⅴa在线观看 h动漫 末成年女A∨片一区二区 av无码电影一区二区三区 99香蕉国产精品偷在线观看 巨胸喷奶水视频www免费动漫 国产女人18毛片水真多18精品 亚洲码欧美码一区二区三区 樱花草视频在线观看高清免费观看 老板办公室乳摸GIF动态图 色戒在线 亚洲av无码久久无遮挡 gogo亚洲肉体艺术欣赏图片 欧文 国内揄拍国内精品少妇国语 A片在线观看 国产裸拍裸体视频在线观看 无码精品视频一区二区三区 天天躁日日躁狠狠躁欧美老妇小说 国模大胆无码私拍啪啪AV 日本久久久久亚洲中字幕 古代四大美女 免费无码刺激性A片完整版 久久99精品久久久久久噜噜 av无码电影一区二区三区 欧美性大战久久久久久久 一本一道久久a久久精品综合 av无码电影一区二区三区 野花社区视频WWW 怎样才算皮包过长 久久99国产乱子伦精品免费 日本熟妇色VIDEOS 大桥未久亚洲无av码在线 gogo亚洲肉体艺术欣赏图片 男男gv纯肉无码免费播放 日本熟妇乱人伦XXXXBa 亚洲国产精品一区二区九九 久久久久久久精品一区二区三区 一本一道波多野结衣av黑人 色综合久久久久久久久五月 手机在线电影 亚洲国产精品一区二区第四页 无码国产精品一区二区AV 国产精品久久久久无码AV 国产AV无码专区亚洲精品 啪啪无码人妻丰满熟妇 成熟人妻换XXXX 国产a∨精品一区二区三区不卡 国产精品女同一区二区 老熟妇HD小伙子另类 JAPAN粗暴VIDEO高潮 国产精品无码AV在线播放 忘忧草WWW社区韩国日本 激情97综合亚洲色婷婷五 成年免费视频黄网站在线观看 久久久久久久人妻无码中文字幕爆 乱中年女人伦AV三区 精品国产免费一区二区三区 h高潮娇喘抽搐老师男男 日本熟妇乱人伦XXXXBa av无码电影一区二区三区 暖爱免费观看高清视频 女人用品专卖店 忘忧草在线影院WWW日本韩国 奶水涨翁公帮我吸 99香蕉国产精品偷在线观看 久久电影网 国模精品一区二区三区 亚洲精品无码久久毛片波多野吉衣 韩国三级 亚洲国产精品一区二区九九 亚洲人成网站999久久久综合 国产精品久久国产精品99盘 99久久国产综合精品五月天喷水 色偷偷一区二区无码视频 久久小说 国产精品精品一区二区三区 欧美性稚交6-12 亚洲人成无码www久久久 4D肉蒲团之性奴大战奶水 亚洲无线码一区二区三区 奶水涨翁公帮我吸 AV无码AV在线A∨天堂毛片 偷窥厕所aaaaaa片偷窥 熟女网 日本熟妇乱人伦A骗高清免费观看 乱妇乱女熟妇熟女网站 黄蓉的销魂夜1一6 乱妇乱女熟妇熟女网站 永久无码日韩A片免费看 精品无码三级在线观看视频 亚洲中文字幕无码AV一区 一个人在线观看www高清中文 台湾佬自拍偷区亚洲综合 国产乱人伦App精品久久 亚洲一区二区三区 小破孩网站www 亚洲国产精品国自产拍AV 窝窝人体 凌晨三点高清在线观看 国产做A爱免费视频在线观看 中文字幕精品无码亚洲字幕蜜芽 国语少妇高潮对白在线 精品久久久噜噜噜久久久 老熟妇仑乱一区二区三区 一个人的在线观看WWW 国产偷国产偷亚洲清高动态图 24小时日本免费高清视频 少妇人妻久久无码专区 男女交配 漂亮人妻偷人精品视频 小破孩网站www 最近2019中文字幕在线 玉婷阁 大桥未久亚洲无av码在线 抽插视频 亚洲老熟女@TUBEUMTV 亚洲国产精品国自产拍AV 在线观看黄A片免费视频 国产精品视频一区二区三区不卡 亚洲H在线播放在线观看H h高潮娇喘抽搐老师男男 手机在线电影 久久久精品人妻一区二区三区gv 丁长生田鄂茹全文免费阅读 成人A片在线观看免费播放 美女网站视频 久久精品无码一区二区软件 翁熄粗长粗大满足少妇 黑人巨大精品欧美一区二区 精品久久久一区二区三区 天天爽夜夜爽夜夜爽 亚洲人成网站999久久久综合 一个人免费播放在线观看 好吊妞国产欧美日韩免费观看 七里香社区在线观看 性一交一乱一伦A片www 亚洲色偷拍另类无码专区 欧美性爱a片 欧美人精品XO yy大杂烩 成人A片在线观看免费播放 日本AAAAA片爽快免费中国 丰满人妻熟妇乱又仑精品 最新国产乱人伦偷精品免费网站 国产日产美产精品精品 我把护士日出水了视频90分钟 色八区人妻在线视频免费 午夜福利国产成人A∨在线观看 免费a级毛片高清在钱 欧美亚洲国产精品久久蜜芽直播 欧美综合亚洲日韩精品区 女士的法则电视剧免费观看 老扒翁熄系列40 永久无码日韩A片免费看 欧美人与动牲交ZOOZ乌克兰 亚洲码欧美码一区二区三区 国产农村乱人伦精品视频 无码AV人妻一区二区三区四区 少妇人妻偷人精品无码视频 亚洲精品99久久久久中文字幕 性色av无码不卡中文字幕 色偷偷偷在线视频播放 日本熟妇乱人伦XXXXBa 亚洲AV成人无码久久www 香蕉久久久久久av成人 午夜福利国产成人A∨在线观看 把舌头伸进她腿间花缝 苏雪 国产成年无码A片在线观看麻豆 英语老师解开裙子坐我腿中间 美女裸体爆乳免费网站 亚洲男女一区二区三区 free嫩白的18sex性 奶水涨翁公帮我吸 亚洲国产精品一区二区九九 国产a片 欧美性爱a片 ZOOSKVIDEOS性欧美 第一次 忘忧草在线影院WWW日本韩国 我和亲妺婷婷在浴室作爱经过 亚洲乱亚洲乱少妇无码99p 国内精品美女A∨在线播放 一炕四女被窝交换全文阅读 久久久久av无码免费网 欧美另类极度残忍拳头交 一二三四在线观看视频韩国 农民伯伯乡下妹 国产精品亚洲AV三区国产伟业 亚洲无线码一区二区三区 亚洲爆乳中文字幕无码专区网站 久久综合九色综合 A毛片免费全部播放自慰 国产精品va无码一区二区 国产人妻 AV边做边流奶水无码免费 从头啪到尾全肉小黄书完整 色欲AV无码一区二区三区 日本无遮真人祼交视频 免费无遮挡肉动漫在线观看免费 娇喘 少妇BBw搡BBBB搡BBBB 狠狠躁天天躁无码中文字幕 欲奴 裸体美女扒开尿口视频在线播放 在人线AV无码免费高潮喷水 久久综合香蕉国产蜜臀AV 狠狠色丁香婷婷久久综合不卡 亚洲无线码一区二区三区 波多野结衣av 好吊妞 国产美女久久久浪潮AV 久久电影网 亚洲av永久无码精品无码 久久av高潮av无码av av无码精品一区二区三区宅噜噜 久久99国产乱子伦精品免费 日韩人妻无码精品无码中文字幕 国产精品久久国产精品99盘 11孩岁女精品a片 别揉我奶头~嗯~啊~漫画网站 日本久久久久亚洲中字幕 国产日产欧产美 ZOOSKVIDEOS性欧美 国产小呦泬泬99精品 亲嘴视频 亚洲AV成人片无码网站网 视频分类 国内精品 男人扒开添女人下部免费视频 亚洲 自拍 另类 欧美 综合 情侣作爱视频 半夜家里没人妈妈就是你的人作文 国产乱人伦App精品久久 欧洲人妻丰满av无码久久不卡 久久无码精品一区二区三区 亚洲色网站 郑州轻工业大学 色综合99久久久无码国产精品 性做久久久久久久久 玉婷阁 国产在线无码视频一区 别揉我奶头~嗯~啊~漫画网站 久久久国产精品免费A片分 女同 一本久道久久丁香狠狠躁 欧美人C交ZOOZ0OXX ZOOSKVIDEOS性欧美 在线电影 中国大妈RAP东北 精品一区二区三区无码亚洲 熟妇女人妻619丰满少妇 亚洲 欧美 激情 小说 另类 日本乱偷互换人妻中文字幕 JAPAN粗暴VIDEO高潮 18禁无遮挡啪啪摇乳动态图 一本一道久久a久久精品综合 帅老头GA丫帅老头GAY视频 乳色吐息 聊一聊老公是怎么弄自己的 亚洲色婷婷一区二区三区 无码精品视频一区二区三区 CHINESE国产HD中国熟女 法国性XXXXX极品 色AV综合AV综合无码网站 我的性奴的肉玩具1一17心奴 欧美裸体XXXXBBBB极品 亚洲美女高潮久久久久 久久人搡人人玩人妻精品首页 欧美人C交ZOOZ0OXX 欧美裸体XXXXBBBB极品 波多野结衣高潮av在线播放 gogo亚洲肉体艺术欣赏图片 亲吻视频 语文课代表哭着说不能再深了 又大又粗又爽A级毛片免费看 av无码精品一区二区三区宅噜噜 性XXXX欧美老妇506070 一本一道久久a久久精品综合 直接观看黄网站免费视频 成人免费无码大片a毛片抽搐 私人vps一夜爽毛片免费9 手机在线电影 秋霞在线观看 乱中年女人伦AV三区 天堂在线WWW天堂在线最新版 免费A片国产毛无码A片在线播放 两女女百合互慰AV赤裸无遮挡 Japan HD AV videos 色丁香 18禁高潮出水呻吟娇喘AV 小破孩网站www 我故意没有穿内裤坐公车让 99久久人妻无码精品系列 无码一区二区三区中文字幕 日本护士XXXXX在线播放 无码一区二区三区中文字幕 精品国产一区二区三广区 飞机打多了属于肾阴虚还是肾阳虚 中文 无码 亚洲制服 师生 亚洲精品无码久久毛片波多野吉衣 别揉我奶头~嗯~啊~漫画网站 欧美黄片 国产精品亚洲色婷婷99久久精品 精品无码三级在线观看视频 亚洲 欧美 动漫 少妇 自拍 国产婷婷色一区二区三区 Japanese五十路熟女 52影院 国产成人涩涩涩视频在线观看 怎样才算皮包过长 午夜福利国产成人A∨在线观看 亚洲av无码专区亚洲av桃花庵 换着玩人妻HD中文字幕 52影院 我爱卡 从头啪到尾全肉小黄书完整 小雪公交车灌满好爽 52影院 我和子发生了性关系视频 好兄弟和自己的妈妈 亚洲成国产人片在线观看 欧美熟妇ZOZOZO 傲世猛龙齐等闲玉小龙 亚洲AV成人无码久久www 狼人一区二区精品久久 精品无码国产自产拍在线观看蜜 娇喘 亚洲精品乱码久久久久久不卡 黑龙江大学校园信息门户 啪啪无码人妻丰满熟妇 18禁无遮挡啪啪摇乳动态图 熟女网 女人自慰 把舌头伸进她腿间花缝 苏雪 国产精品久久久久一区二区三区 亚洲国产精品一区二区九九 12一14幻女bbwxxxx在线播放 边吃奶边摸下很爽护士 99国产欧美久久久精品蜜芽 私人vps一夜爽毛片免费9 亲吻视频 国产日韩a视频在线播放视频 131美女 亚洲色av天天天天天天 亚洲 欧美 激情 小说 另类 ASS鲜嫩鲜嫩PICS日本 sm小说 阴道前壁膨出 亚洲国产精品一区二区第四页 十八禁漫画无遮挡 日本熟妇乱人伦A骗高清免费观看 视频分类 国内精品 又大又粗又爽A级毛片免费看 国产AV一区二区三区无码野战 亚洲国产精品国自产拍AV 免费 国产三级精品三级在线专1 办公室的超薄丝袜人妻献身 久久精品国产乱子伦 51漫画 中文字幕精品无码亚洲字幕蜜芽 国产麻豆剧果冻传媒星空视频 日本熟妇乱人伦A骗高清免费观看 久久精品中文字幕无码绿巨人 私人vps一夜爽毛片免费9 久久精品国产乱子伦 忘忧草www 发现妈妈每天偷偷和别人聊天 为什么放进去女的就老实了 中文字幕精品无码亚洲字幕蜜芽 人妻精品久久久久中文字幕 欧美日韩中文国产一区 Japanese五十路熟女 国产农村乱人伦精品视频 Japanese五十路熟女 亚洲av图片 第一次 日本熟妇乱人伦A骗高清免费观看 美女浴室洗澡裸体爆乳无遮挡 亚洲精品无码日韩国产不卡Av 欧美精品老少配老妇 国产ChineseHDXXXXTube对白 Japanese五十路熟女 精品无码一区二区三区爱欲 国产精品久久国产三级国不卡顿 美女浴室洗澡裸体爆乳无遮挡 亚洲国产精品国自产拍AV 亲女禁忌H够引 爱恋 天天爽夜夜爽人人爽一区二区 同性两男A片黄在线观看 中文字幕巨乱亚洲高清A片 漂亮人妻洗澡被公强啪啪 免费 国产乱人伦App精品久久 黄色三级 欧美性VIDEOS高清精品 男女啪啪视频 国产美女被遭强高潮免费网站 免费公妇仑乱在线观看 免费A级毛片无码A∨性按摩 亚洲精品无码日韩国产不卡Av 精品无码一区二区三区爱欲 免费A级毛片无码A∨性按摩 直接观看黄网站免费视频 精品无码久久久久久尤物 av网址 欧美V亚洲V综合V国产V 国产裸拍裸体视频在线观看 久久无码精品一区二区三区 国产精品久久国产三级国不卡顿 99国产欧美久久久精品蜜芽 亚洲无线码一区二区三区 女人自慰 无码精品人妻一区二区三区影院 久久久精品人妻一区二区三区gv 无码精品人妻一区二区三区影院 成人区人妻精品一区二区不卡网站 直接观看黄网站免费视频 亚洲一区二区三区 飞机打多了属于肾阴虚还是肾阳虚 AA片在线观看无码免费 亚洲爆乳中文字幕无码专区网站 亚洲影院 日本无遮真人祼交视频 成年免费大片黄在线观看20片 鞭打调教下贱的烂货h 玉婷阁 色综合AV综合无码综合网站 美女人体艺术 丁长生田鄂茹全文免费阅读 人妻性奴波多野结衣无码 四房播 台湾佬自拍偷区亚洲综合 h动漫 ZOOSKVIDEOS性欧美 美女网站视频 精品无码久久久久久尤物 亚洲 自拍 另类 欧美 综合 h高潮娇喘抽搐老师男男 国产三级精品三级在线专1 淫乱男女 国产女人18毛片水真多18精品 久久99精品久久久久久婷婷 精品亚洲AV乱码一区二区三区 老板办公室乳摸GIF动态图 国产精品女同一区二区 一本色道久久88—综合亚洲精品 欧美亚洲日韩国产人成在线播放 台湾佬自拍偷区亚洲综合 无码精品视频一区二区三区 疯狂做受XXXX国产 亚洲av图片 AV边做边流奶水无码免费 999导航 日韩人妻双飞无码精品久久 韩国a片 成人午夜性A级毛片免费 我的好妈妈4韩国中字 聚会的目的 一区二区 翁熄粗长粗大满足少妇 成年免费视频黄网站在线观看 AV无码AV在线A∨天堂毛片 美女自拍 别揉我奶头~嗯~啊~漫画网站 无码人妻丰满熟妇啪啪网不卡 久久久精品人妻久久影视 最近国语视频在线观看 日韩电影 翁熄粗长粗大满足少妇 国内精品伊人久久久久777 4D肉蒲团之性奴大战奶水 亚洲一区二区三区高清AV 《年轻女教师2》中文字幕 天天狠天天透天干天天怕∴ 精品久久久一区二区三区 色狠狠AV老熟女 啊~cao死你个小sao货视频 久久av高潮av无码av 日韩午夜理论免费tv影院 男女嘿咻激烈爱爱动态图 两阴夹一阳 Japan HD AV videos 亚洲av图片 国产精品无码亚洲一区二区三区 国模大胆无码私拍啪啪AV 漂亮人妻偷人精品视频 亚洲av永久无码精品无码 70岁色老头oldmanvideos 美女网站色 乱人伦人妻中文字幕无码 色欲精品国产一区二区三区AV 欧美性AAA片在线观看 鞭打调教下贱的烂货h 亚洲精品无码久久毛片波多野吉衣 欧美贵妇系列 日韩人妻无码精品无码中文字幕 亚洲老熟女@TUBEUMTV 亚洲AV成人片无码网站网 亚洲国产精品一区二区九九 第一次 FREE性开放小少妇 韩国漫画漫免费观看免费 欧美性AAA片在线观看 韩国电影在线观看 Av无码天堂一区二区三区 婷婷大伊香蕉五月天视频 男男gv纯肉无码免费播放 H高潮嗯啊娇喘抽搐高H sm小说 强奷乱码中文字幕乱老妇 亚洲欧美另类成人综合图片 gogo亚洲肉体艺术欣赏图片 好兄弟和自己的妈妈 久久av高潮av无码av 无码国产精品一区二区AV 久久人午夜亚洲精品无码区 无码AV人妻一区二区三区四区 内谢少妇XXXXX8 直接观看黄网站免费视频 好吊操视频 欧洲人妻丰满av无码久久不卡 在线无码 古代四大美女 杨思敏版金梅瓶1一5集播放 韩国电影在线观看 亚洲H在线播放在线观看H 《年轻女教师2》中文字幕 午夜福利国产成人A∨在线观看 午夜精品A片一区二区三区资源看 一个人在线观看www高清中文 亚洲色婷婷一区二区三区 日本熟妇乱人伦XXXXBa AA片在线观看无码免费 日本护士XXXXX在线播放 熟女网 24小时免费看片 女人自慰 色欲av网 AV无码精品久久久久精品免费 漂亮人妻洗澡被公强啪啪 亚洲AV中文无码乱人伦在线视色 国产a v无码专区亚洲av 4D肉蒲团之性奴大战奶水 国产精品国产亚洲区艳妇糸列短篇 无码人妻丰满熟妇啪啪网不卡 中文字幕乱码人妻综合二区三区 性色av无码不卡中文字幕 鞭打调教下贱的烂货h 国产精品亚洲AV三区国产伟业 末成年女A∨片一区二区 国产a片 色AV综合AV综合无码网站 52影院 欧美裸体XXXXBBBB极品 男人扒开添女人下部免费视频 国产熟女一区二区三区五月婷 4D肉蒲团之性奴大战奶水 第一次 欧美性AAA片在线观看 国产片免费福利片永久 国产小呦泬泬99精品 久久人午夜亚洲精品无码区 伊人久久大香线蕉av五月天宝贝 风流女管家 香蕉久久久久久av成人 中文字幕人妻色偷偷久久 欧美三级乱人伦电影 日本护士XXXXX在线播放 精品国产一区二区三广区 最近2019中文字幕在线 亚洲美女高潮久久久久 一本色道久久综合亚洲精品 日韩加勒比无码人妻系列 亚洲精品无码久久毛片波多野吉衣 国产av无码专区亚洲av毛片搜 樱花草视频在线观看高清免费观看 久久久无码精品亚洲日韩京东传媒 国产丝袜无码一区二区三区视频 精品久久久久久亚洲熟女 亚洲AV成人无码久久www 男女打扑克 骚男干过的熟妇 精品亚洲AV乱码一区二区三区 亚洲 自拍 另类 欧美 综合 男女交配 暴君的疯狂索爱 一本一道波多野结衣av黑人 帅老头GA丫帅老头GAY视频 国内精品伊人久久久久777 久久久久国产精品熟女影院 国产精品精品一区二区三区 艳mu无删减在线观看免费无码 人妻性奴波多野结衣无码 久久久久av无码免费网 精品香蕉99久久久久网站 通房娇宠 小妖精抬起臀嗯啊h太子妃 亚洲综合激情五月丁香六月 免费无遮挡肉动漫在线观看免费 久久久婷婷五月亚洲97号色 11孩岁女精品a片 小破孩网站www 国产精品女同一区二区 内谢少妇XXXXX8 裸体美女扒开尿口视频在线播放 精品久久久久久亚洲熟女 鞭打调教下贱的烂货h 嗯…啊潮喷喝水高h男男 欧美V亚洲V综合V国产V av无码电影一区二区三区 亲吻视频 爽爽爽精品一区二区三区 亚洲肥老太BBW中国熟女 国产精品视频一区二区三区不卡 我玩弄美艳馊子高潮 十八禁漫画无遮挡 精品久久久噜噜噜久久久 小辣椒导航污污午夜福利 日日摸夜夜添夜夜无码区 国产精品久久国产三级国不卡顿 久久久久久精品免费免费自慰 国产精品白浆无码流出视频 国产片免费福利片永久 摸胸视频 亚洲av无码专区亚洲av桃花庵 阴道前壁膨出 久久久久国产精品熟女影院 黄色视频网站 久久久无码精品亚洲日韩京东传媒 欧美性大战久久久久久久 亚洲影院 亚洲AV中文无码乱人伦在线视色 亚洲精品乱码久久久久久不卡 国模精品一区二区三区 大战丰满人妻50P 久久久久久精品免费免费自慰 少妇人妻久久无码专区 chinese新婚videosex 久久久久国产综合AV天堂 欧美V亚洲V综合V国产V 国产精品美女久久久m 精品国产一区二区三广区 亚洲AV成人无码久久www 别揉我奶头嗯~啊~的视频网站 手机在线电影 sm小说 熟妇女人妻619丰满少妇 引诱亲女乱怀孕小说录目伦 热热色 国产精品午夜无码AV天美传媒 午夜无码人妻AV大片色欲 中文字幕精品无码亚洲字幕日韩 欧美贵妇系列 啪啪无码人妻丰满熟妇 无码国产精品一区二区AV 久久久亚洲精品无码 两阴夹一阳 99久久人妻无码精品系列 999久久久免费精品国产 欧文 台湾佬自拍偷区亚洲综合 h高潮娇喘抽搐老师男男 黄色视频网站 国内揄拍国内精品少妇国语 暖爱免费观看高清视频 久久婷婷五月综合色欧美 久久久久久久99精品免费观看 农民伯伯乡下妹 暴君的疯狂索爱 两阴夹一阳 国产精品亚洲色婷婷99久久精品 人妻性奴波多野结衣无码 三个男人添到我高潮 亚洲va国产va天堂va久久 欧美黄片 成 人 黄 色 网 站 在线播放视 中文精品久久久久人妻不卡 美美的免费视频 日韩加勒比一本无码精品 999久久久免费精品国产 成熟yⅰn荡的美妇a片 凌晨三点高清在线观看 成 人 十 八 黄 色 网 站视频 国产美女久久久浪潮AV 偷窥厕所aaaaaa片偷窥 国产a片 好男人www在线观看视频 天天躁日日躁狠狠躁欧美老妇小说 国产VPS私人片 国产a片 沈阳60老熟女高潮 嘉佑嬉事 直接观看黄网站免费视频 从头啪到尾全肉小黄书完整 大秀 男女啪啪视频 久久综合九色综合 欧美人C交ZOOZ0OXX 精品国产一区二区三广区 一二三四在线观看视频韩国 亚洲色偷拍另类无码专区 绝色教师美妇沉沦为玩物 久久亚洲Av无码西西人体 狂野欧美性猛交XXXX 啪啪AV大全导航福利 亚洲老熟女@TUBEUMTV 无码免费一区二区三区免费播放 24小时日本免费高清视频 女生的奶奶是什么样的呢 嘉佑嬉事 性一交一乱一伦A片www 国产日产欧产美 国产精品亚洲AV三区国产伟业 亚洲精品乱码久久久久久v av网址 男女嘿咻激烈爱爱动态图 无码丰满熟妇浪潮一区二区Av 无码精品人妻一区二区三区影院 丰满人妻熟妇乱又仑精品 精品无码国产AV一区二区 亚洲一区二区三区橡胶防水 凌晨三点高清在线观看 天天爽夜夜爽夜夜爽 久久婷婷五月综合色欧美 一本久道久久丁香狠狠躁 法国性XXXXX极品 无码国产精品一区二区免费模式 精品无码AV人妻系列网站 欧美大屁股喷潮水XXXX 久久精品无码一区二区软件 24小时免费看片 24小时免费观看完整视频 日本护士XXXXX在线播放 日韩电影 女同 色偷偷中文字幕综合久久 成年免费大片黄在线观看20片 老扒翁熄系列40 精品无码三级在线观看视频 强奷漂亮少妇高潮A片 国产日产欧产美 七里香社区在线观看 天天操天天干 天堂AV无码亚洲AV无码 免费A级毛片无码A∨性按摩 老阿姨才是最有味的 天天躁夜夜躁av天天爽 中文字幕巨乱亚洲高清A片 亚洲乱码一区二区三区在线观看 chinese猛男自慰gay网站 久久久久国产综合AV天堂 嗯…啊潮喷喝水高h男男 男女打扑克 许你万丈光芒好 精品熟女少妇AV免费久久 亚洲影院 欧美人精品XO 久久久久av无码免费网 性XXXX欧美老妇506070 语文课代表哭着说不能再深了 精品国模一区二区三区 强奷漂亮少妇高潮A片 天天躁日日躁狠狠躁欧美老妇小说 人妻厨房出轨上司HD院线 国产日产欧产美 久久久久久久99精品免费观看 香蕉久久久久久av成人 久久人人爽爽爽人久久久 别揉我奶头~嗯~啊~漫画网站 亚洲色婷婷一区二区三区 村里美人香免费全文小说 日本公妇仑乱中文字幕 4D肉蒲团之性奴大战奶水 国内精品美女A∨在线播放 久久人妻无码一区二区三区av 欧美贵妇系列 迷你特工队 色八区人妻在线视频免费 清纯校花的被cao日常np 色综合99久久久无码国产精品 久久人搡人人玩人妻精品首页 久久久久国产精品熟女影院 四虎影库 色综合久久久久久久久五月 国产AV一区二区二三区冫 国产成人69视频午夜福利在线观看 久久久久久伊人高潮影院 丁长生田鄂茹全文免费阅读 chinese男校草飞机videos 飞机打多了属于肾阴虚还是肾阳虚 国产做A爱免费视频在线观看 妖精色AV无码国产在线看 女人用品专卖店 国产精品亚洲AV三区国产伟业 欧美人C交ZOOZ0OXX 999导航 玉婷阁 一本色道久久88—综合亚洲精品 国产裸拍裸体视频在线观看 日韩午夜理论免费tv影院 一本一道久久a久久精品综合 无码人妻丰满熟妇啪啪网不卡 免费无遮挡肉动漫在线观看免费 内谢少妇XXXXX8 亚洲精品无码久久毛片 97超碰中文字幕久久精品 成熟yⅰn荡的美妇a片 无码AV人妻一区二区三区四区 插插xX免费A片 美女裸体爆乳免费网站 色窝窝无码一区二区三区 狼人一区二区精品久久 成熟yⅰn荡的美妇a片 小雪公交车灌满好爽 久久久精品人妻一区二区三区gv 人人射 久久AV喷潮久久AV高清 天黑黑影院在线观看免费 777亚洲精品乱码久久久久久 日本男吃奶玩乳30分钟视频 古代四大美女 嗯…啊潮喷喝水高h男男 女人下部隐私图片.(不遮挡) AAA级久久久精品无码片 黄蓉的销魂夜1一6 国产a片 无码精品不卡一区二区三区 床上视频 国产AV一区二区三区无码野战 凌晨三点高清在线观看 把冰块一块一块推进的游戏 新版天堂资源中文WWW连接 人妻办公室屈辱呻吟 中文字幕人妻色偷偷久久 人妻性奴波多野结衣无码 一个人在线视频免费观看www 日本少妇被黑人XXXXX h高潮娇喘抽搐老师男男 yy大杂烩 亚洲 欧美 动漫 少妇 自拍 无码人妻视频一区二区三区 别揉我奶头嗯~啊~的视频网站 人妻精品久久久久中文字幕 久久99精品久久久久久婷婷 久久精品中文字幕无码绿巨人 精品一区二区三区无码亚洲 日日摸日日踫夜夜爽无码 男人j进女人j的免费视频 国产精品爽爽ⅴa在线观看 国产在线精品二区 忘忧草www 国产精品久久国产三级国不卡顿 国产精品美女久久久m 亚洲av永久无码精品无码 在人线AV无码免费高潮喷水 亚洲欧美激情精品一区二区 久久久精品人妻一区二区三区gv 美女网站视频 欧美性爱a片 免费无码又爽又刺激高潮视频 51漫画 黄色视频网站 bt天堂在线www最新版资源 久久爱 韩国三级 无码精品视频一区二区三区 精品久久久噜噜噜久久久 男女交配 亚洲国产精品一区二区第四页 日本无遮真人祼交视频 国产女人18毛片水真多18精品 热热色 少妇人妻偷人精品无码视频 国产小呦泬泬99精品 A片在线观看 男女嘿咻激烈爱爱动态图 白带发黄内裤上干了像一层壳 国产成A人片在线观看视频下载 肮脏的交易 日韩午夜理论免费tv影院 小妖精抬起臀嗯啊h太子妃 中文 无码 亚洲制服 师生 波多野结衣av 亚洲另类精品无码专区 漂亮人妻偷人精品视频 亚洲一区二区三区高清在线观看 久久久久精品无码AV人妖 欧美性大战久久久久久久 免费a级毛片高清在钱 小辣椒导航污污午夜福利 大学生囗交口爆吞精在线视频 AAA级久久久精品无码片 国产JJIZZ女人多水喷水 辣文小说 国产精品毛片一区二区 又大又粗又爽A级毛片免费看 国产学生情侣久久AV 妖精色AV无码国产在线看 欧美性AAA片在线观看 人人射 农民伯伯乡下妹 黑龙江大学校园信息门户 亚洲影院 亚洲爆乳中文字幕无码专区网站 ZOOSKVIDEOS性欧美 免费a级毛片高清在钱 大学生囗交口爆吞精在线视频 色综合99久久久无码国产精品 国产激情一区二区三区小说 天堂在线WWW 少妇人妻久久无码专区 韩国三级 成年免费大片黄在线观看20片 国产美女久久久浪潮AV 极品少妇被猛的白浆直喷白浆 精品无码国产AV一区二区 AV无码久久久久不卡网站 看色客 免费a级毛片高清在钱 换着玩人妻HD中文字幕 少妇XXXXX性开放 欧美另类极度残忍拳头交 一炕四女被窝交换全文阅读 一个人在线观看www高清中文 《年轻女教师2》中文字幕 久久久国产不卡一区二区 最近的2019中文字幕免费 免费看AV 最新国产乱人伦偷精品免费网站 国产a片 yy大杂烩 漂亮人妻偷人精品视频 欧美色视频日本片免费 国产成人AV无码专区亚洲AV 窝窝人体 免费 色狠狠AV老熟女 色婷婷六月亚洲综合香蕉 国产精品爽爽ⅴa在线观看 免费无遮挡肉动漫在线观看免费 亚洲H在线播放在线观看H 黄色的网站 ZOOSKVIDEOS性欧美 美女的胸 久久久无码精品亚洲日韩京东传媒 为什么放进去女的就老实了 极品熟妇大蝴蝶20P 欧美精品老少配老妇 久久久国产不卡一区二区 美女隐私直播 内谢少妇XXXXX8 久久人搡人人玩人妻精品首页 国产成人人综合亚洲欧美丁香花 国产美女久久久浪潮AV yy大杂烩 性XXXX欧美老妇506070 久久窝窝国产精品午夜看片 国产成人人综合亚洲欧美丁香花 男女啪啪视频 亚洲成国产人片在线观看 女人下部隐私图片.(不遮挡) 暴君的疯狂索爱 两阴夹一阳 在线精品亚洲一区二区动态图 日本护士XXXXX在线播放 韩国电影在线观看 好大好湿好硬顶到了好爽 欧美性大战久久久久久久 人妻办公室屈辱呻吟 女士的法则电视剧免费观看 毛片免费全部无码播放 816 国产精品亚洲AV三区国产伟业 伊人久久大香线蕉av五月天宝贝 国产AV一区二区二三区冫 欧洲人妻丰满av无码久久不卡 国产熟女一区二区三区五月婷 忘忧草在线影院WWW日本韩国 欧美性爱a片 natalia 黑人大 长 吊video 无码一区二区三区中文字幕 70岁色老头oldmanvideos 日本三级片网站 久久久久久久精品一区二区三区 无码丰满熟妇浪潮一区二区Av 久久久婷婷五月亚洲97号色 黄蓉的销魂夜1一6 久久久婷婷五月亚洲97号色 国产农村乱人伦精品视频 日本少妇被黑人XXXXX 娇妻穿开档内裤陪客户 欧美视频 色窝窝无码一区二区三区 强奷漂亮少妇高潮A片app下载 婷婷成人小说综合专区 丁长生田鄂茹全文免费阅读 偷窥厕所aaaaaa片偷窥 绝色教师美妇沉沦为玩物 清纯校花的被cao日常np 亚洲 自拍 另类 欧美 综合 久久综合香蕉国产蜜臀AV 双飞闺蜜呻吟交换 夜夜高潮夜夜爽夜夜爱爱 精品国模一区二区三区 黄色的网站 五月天色 引诱亲女乱怀孕小说录目伦 久久99久久99精品中文字幕 国产麻豆剧果冻传媒星空视频 51vv天堂社区 国产精品午夜无码AV天美传媒 精品久久久噜噜噜久久久 无码人妻精品一区二区三区99 狠狠躁天天躁无码中文字幕 日韩毛片 亚洲精品无码久久毛片 亚洲无线码一区二区三区 汗だく爆乳中出しプレスめぐり 好大好湿好硬顶到了好爽 日日AV 国产成A人片在线观看视频下载 国产精品午夜无码AV天美传媒 日韩精品无码综合福利网 国模无码人体一区二区 欧美精品老少配老妇 欧美日韩中文国产一区 白带发黄内裤上干了像一层壳 妖精色AV无码国产在线看 丁长生田鄂茹全文免费阅读 亚洲精品乱码久久久久久不卡 迷你特工队 亚洲精品无码日韩国产不卡Av 巨胸喷奶水视频www免费动漫 国产学生情侣久久AV 第一次 风流女管家 欧美人C交ZOOZ0OXX 欧美亚洲日韩国产人成在线播放 av无码一区二区三区 苍井空A片三D肉蒲团高清视频 少妇XXXXX性开放 古装激情偷乱人伦视频 一二三四免费观看视频 亚洲男同帅gay片在线观看 骚男干过的熟妇 11孩岁女精品a片 无码AV人妻一区二区三区四区 日本久久久久亚洲中字幕 抽插视频 啊~cao死你个小sao货视频 热热色 国产精品精品一区二区三区 日日摸日日踫夜夜爽无码 成 人 十 八 黄 色 网 站视频 深夜视频在线免费 日日AV 精品无码久久久久久尤物 老板办公室乳摸GIF动态图 男女嘿咻激烈爱爱动态图 在线电影 偷炮少妇宾馆半推半就激情 Japan HD AV videos 性XXXX欧美老妇506070 台湾佬自拍偷区亚洲综合 乳色吐息 一二三四在线观看视频韩国 国语少妇高潮对白在线 国语少妇高潮对白在线 亚洲欧美日韩国产成人精品影院 暴君的疯狂索爱 爱恋 《隔壁放荡人妻bd高清》 国产乱人伦App精品久久 飞机打多了属于肾阴虚还是肾阳虚 国产呦在线沙发 免费看AV 99热这里只有精品免费播放 一个人在线视频免费观看www 伊人久久大香线蕉av五月天宝贝 嘉佑嬉事 久久综合九色综合 被CAO的喷水站不起来了 国产精品va无码一区二区 狠狠综合久久无码AV网站 97超碰中文字幕久久精品 无码丰满熟妇浪潮一区二区Av 插插xX免费A片 天天躁夜夜躁av天天爽 樱花草视频在线观看高清免费观看 色综合99久久久无码国产精品 国产精品无码亚洲一区二区三区 国产激情一区二区三区小说 撕开奶罩疯狂揉吮奶头 精品香蕉99久久久久网站 无码人妻精品一区二区三区99性 国产美女久久久浪潮AV 久久婷婷五月综合色欧美 色狠狠AV老熟女 亚洲色精品一区二区三区 亚洲成国产人片在线观看 国产女人18毛片水真多18精品 AAA级久久久精品无码片 把舌头伸进她腿间花缝 苏雪 AV无码AV在线A∨天堂毛片 成熟yⅰn荡的美妇a片 热热色 国产ChineseHDXXXXTube对白 娇妻穿开档内裤陪客户 亚洲av无码久久无遮挡 少妇BBw搡BBBB搡BBBB 午夜福利国产成人A∨在线观看 动漫精品啪啪一区二区三区 精品无码久久久久久尤物 三级片在线观看 小雪公交车灌满好爽 亚洲H在线播放在线观看H 色综合色综合久久综合频道88 亚洲色网站 天堂在线WWW 成熟人妻换XXXX 亚洲色精品一区二区三区 久久99精品久久久久久噜噜 人妻激情另类乱人伦人妻 疯狂做受XXXX国产 好吊妞 聚会的目的 成年免费大片黄在线观看20片 欧美综合亚洲日韩精品区 chinesemature老熟妇高潮 国产精品女同一区二区 精品无码国产自产拍在线观看蜜 日本三级片网站 天天操天天干 娇妻穿开档内裤陪客户 欧美三级在线现看中文 美女自拍 飞机打多了属于肾阴虚还是肾阳虚 把舌头伸进她腿间花缝 苏雪 av无码精品一区二区三区宅噜噜 国产a片 丰满人妻熟妇乱又仑精品 手机在线电影 午夜剧场 暖爱免费观看高清视频 国产学生情侣久久AV 精品久久久久久亚洲熟女 日本护士XXXXX在线播放 国产无遮挡又爽又黄大胸免费 AV边做边流奶水无码免费 三级视频 人人爽天天碰天天躁夜夜躁 在办公室挺进市长美妇雪臀 欲奴 久久免费看少妇高潮A片JAⅤ 天天狠天天透天干天天怕∴ 日本老熟MATUREBBW子乱 欧美人与动牲交ZOOZ乌克兰 别揉我奶头~嗯~啊~漫画网站 性一交一乱一伦A片www 日日AV 老熟妇HD小伙子另类 老板办公室乳摸GIF动态图 久久免费看黄A级毛片连期A片 国产精品久久一区二区三区 熟妇女人妻619丰满少妇 欧美人妻天天爽夜夜爽欧美色院 99热这里只有精品免费播放 手机在线电影 少妇人妻偷人精品无码视频 啪啪AV大全导航福利 狠狠躁天天躁无码中文字幕 疯狂伦交一女多男视频 免费A片国产毛无码A片在线播放 亚洲 欧美 动漫 少妇 自拍 国产精品爽爽ⅴa在线观看 亚洲av无码专区亚洲av桃花庵 亲嘴视频 国产高潮流白浆喷水免费网站 色欲精品国产一区二区三区AV 国产精品久久一区二区三区 ASS鲜嫩鲜嫩PICS日本 国产精品精品一区二区三区 精品久久久一区二区三区 午夜精品A片一区二区三区资源看 三个男人添到我高潮 一个人在线观看www高清中文 亚洲 自拍 另类 欧美 综合 中文 无码 亚洲制服 师生 亚洲高清国产av拍精品青青草原 yy大杂烩 国产在线无码视频一区 美女隐私直播 女人下部隐私图片.(不遮挡) 免费无码AⅤ片在线观看 4D肉蒲团之性奴大战奶水 久久人人爽爽爽人久久久 japonensisjava中文版 久久久婷婷五月亚洲97号色 人善交VIDE欧美 美女的胸 樱花草视频在线观看高清免费观看 成人免费无码大片a毛片抽搐 摸胸视频 女人下部隐私图片.(不遮挡) natalia 黑人大 长 吊video 亚洲 自拍 另类 欧美 综合 欧美V亚洲V综合V国产V 伊人久久大香线蕉av五月天宝贝 AV无码AV在线A∨天堂毛片 亚洲色精品一区二区三区 国产ChineseHDXXXXTube对白 欧美黄片 抽插视频 欧美色视频日本片免费 国产激情一区二区三区小说 一二三四在线观看视频韩国 欧美人精品XO ZOOSKVIDEOS性欧美 永久免费毛片在线播放 亚洲 欧美 激情 小说 另类 精品久久久久久亚洲熟女 绝色教师美妇沉沦为玩物 极品少妇被猛的白浆直喷白浆 欧美大屁股喷潮水XXXX 美美的免费视频 国产卡二卡三卡四乱码分类 一区二区 24小时日本免费高清视频 狂野欧美性猛交XXXX 我的性奴的肉玩具1一17心奴 久久久精品人妻一区二区三区gv 老熟妇HD小伙子另类 少妇BBw搡BBBB搡BBBB 古代四大美女 十八禁漫画无遮挡 99国产欧美久久久精品蜜芽 中文字幕二区av人妻少妇 欧美第一页 国模无码人体一区二区 四房播 中文字幕被公侵犯的漂亮人妻 亚洲AV成人无码久久www 久久综合九色综合 婷婷成人小说综合专区 日b视频 国产JJIZZ女人多水喷水 疯狂伦交550篇合集小说txt下载 视频分类 国内精品 亚洲影院 av永久天堂一区二区三区 国产a片 国产精品毛片一区二区 午夜无码人妻AV大片色欲 一区二区 99热这里只有精品免费播放 我玩弄美艳馊子高潮 乱中年女人伦AV三区 美女的胸 少妇XXXXX性开放 手机福利视频 国产学生情侣久久AV 国产呦在线沙发 国产成年无码A片在线观看麻豆 老师把我抱到办公室揉我胸h 狠狠躁天天躁无码中文字幕 中老年网站 绝色教师美妇沉沦为玩物 把冰块一块一块推进的游戏 色偷偷中文字幕综合久久 私人vps一夜爽毛片免费9 性XXXX欧美老妇506070 亚洲老熟女@TUBEUMTV 70岁色老头oldmanvideos 聊一聊老公是怎么弄自己的 bl高h猛烈失禁潮喷男男教室 国产卡二卡三卡四乱码分类 70岁色老头oldmanvideos 美女网站视频 少妇BBw搡BBBB搡BBBB 欧美人体艺术 大桥未久亚洲无av码在线 毛片免费全部无码播放 老美AA片 摸胸视频 韩国电影在线观看 第一次 午夜精品A片一区二区三区资源看 国内精品美女A∨在线播放 床上视频 引诱亲女乱怀孕小说录目伦 引诱亲女乱怀孕小说录目伦 天天躁夜夜躁av天天爽 欧美三级乱人伦电影 第一次 Japanese五十路熟女 人妻精品久久久久中文字幕 韩国激情电影 爽爽爽精品一区二区三区 国产免费高清理伦片A片快速播放 从头啪到尾全肉小黄书完整 成人区人妻精品一区二区不卡网站 农村乱人伦一区二区 暖暖 免费 高清 日本 在线 Japanese五十路熟女 人妻熟妇乱又伦精品视频APP 美女网站视频 婷婷成人小说综合专区 国产女人18毛片水真多18精品 一本一道波多野结衣av黑人 永久无码日韩A片免费看 国产亚洲精品美女久久久M 视频分类 国内精品 bt天堂在线www最新版资源 四房播 手机在线电影 成熟丰满熟妇高潮XXXXX 色AV综合AV综合无码网站 精品国产一区二区三区久久 国产AV一区二区二三区冫 免费 日韩人妻双飞无码精品久久 久久久久久久综合综合狠狠 三级片在线观看 久久久久国产精品熟女影院 国产做A爱免费视频在线观看 色综合久久久久久久久五月 好兄弟和自己的妈妈 国内揄拍国内精品少妇国语 疯狂伦交550篇合集小说txt下载 爽爽爽精品一区二区三区 国产乱人伦App精品久久 绝色教师美妇沉沦为玩物 h高潮娇喘抽搐老师男男 日韩加勒比一本无码精品 嗯…啊潮喷喝水高h男男 性做久久久久久久久 聊一聊老公是怎么弄自己的 色屋 亚洲精品无码久久毛片 无码AV人妻一区二区三区四区 暴君的疯狂索爱 强奷漂亮少妇高潮A片app下载 永久免费毛片在线播放 婷婷成人小说综合专区 亚洲精品无码不卡在线播放he 男女交配 天天狠天天透天干天天怕∴ 国产在线无码视频一区 英语老师解开裙子坐我腿中间 《年轻女教师2》中文字幕 久久久国产不卡一区二区 久久精品无码一区二区软件 天ä